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    Age of Discovery

    Age of Discovery

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    A replica caravel the "", navigating the Tagus river, Lisboa. These smaller vessels played a significant role in Iberian exploration.

    The managed to carry out the first circumnavigation in history. The present image shows a replica of , built in 1992, visiting Nagoya, Japan, for Expo 2005.

    The Age of Discovery (or the Age of Exploration), also known as the early modern period, was a period largely overlapping with the Age of Sail, approximately from the 15th century to the 17th century in European history, in which seafaring Europeans explored regions across the globe.

    The extensive overseas exploration, with the Portuguese and Spanish at the forefront, later joined by the Dutch, English, and French, emerged as a powerful factor in European culture, most notably the European encounter and colonization of the Americas. It also marks an increased adoption of colonialism as a government policy in several European states. As such, it is sometimes synonymous with the first wave of European colonization.

    European exploration outside the Mediterranean started with the maritime expeditions of Portugal to the Canary Islands in 1336,[1] and later with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Azores, the coast of West Africa in 1434 and the establishment of the sea route to India in 1498 by Vasco da Gama, which is often considered a very remarkable voyage, as it initiated the Portuguese maritime and trade presence in Kerala and the Indian Ocean.[2][3]

    A main event in the Age of Discovery took place when Spain sponsored the transatlantic voyages of Christopher Columbus between 1492 and 1504, which saw the beginning of the colonization of the Americas. Years later, the Spanish expedition of Magellan–Elcano expedition made the first circumnavigation of the globe between 1519 and 1522, which was regarded as a major achievement in seamanship, and had a significant impact on the European understanding of the world. These discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, and land expeditions in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, followed by the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.

    European overseas exploration led to the rise of international trade and the European colonial empires, with the contact between the Old World (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and the New World (the Americas), as well as Australia, producing the Columbian exchange, a wide transfer of plants, animals, food, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The Age of Discovery and later European exploration allowed the mapping of the world, resulting in a new worldview and distant civilizations coming into contact. At the same time, new diseases were propagated, decimating populations not previously in contact with the Old World, particularly concerning Native Americans. The era saw the widespread enslavement, exploitation and military conquest of native populations concurrent with the growing economic influence and spread of European culture and technology.

    Contents

    1 Concept 2 Overview 3 Background

    3.1 Rise of European trade

    3.2 Technology: Ship design and the compass

    3.3 Early geographical knowledge and maps

    3.4 Medieval European travel (1241–1438)

    3.5 Chinese missions (1405–1433)

    4 Atlantic Ocean (1419–1507)

    4.1 Portuguese exploration

    4.1.1 Portuguese exploration after Prince Henry

    4.2 Spanish exploration: Columbus's landfall in the Americas

    4.3 Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

    4.4 The Americas: The New World

    4.4.1 North America

    4.4.2 The "True Indies" and Brazil

    5 Indian Ocean (1497–1513)

    5.1 Vasco da Gama's route to India

    5.2 The "Spice Islands" and China

    6 Pacific Ocean (1513–1529)

    6.1 Balboa's expedition to the Pacific Ocean

    6.2 Subsequent developments to the east

    6.3 First circumnavigation

    6.4 Westward and eastward exploration meet

    7 Inland Spanish expeditions (1519–1532)

    7.1 Cortés' Mexico and the Aztec Empire

    7.2 Pizarro's Peru and the Inca Empire

    8 Major new trade routes (1542–1565)

    9 Northern European involvement (1595–17th century)

    9.1 Exploring North America

    9.2 Search for a northern route

    9.2.1 Barentsz' Arctic exploration

    9.3 Dutch Australia and New Zealand

    10 Russian exploration of Siberia (1581–1660)

    10.1 Conquest of the Khanate of Sibir

    10.2 Siberian river routes

    10.3 Russians reach the Pacific

    11 Global impact

    11.1 Economic impact in Europe

    12 See also 13 Footnotes 14 References 14.1 Bibliography

    14.1.1 Primary sources

    14.1.2 Secondary works

    14.1.3 Web sources 15 Further reading 16 External links

    Concept[edit]

    Main article: Discovery (observation)

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    SAGE Reference

    This encyclopedia strategically reflects the enormous diversity of the discipline, the multiple meanings of space itself, and the diverse views of geographer

    See

    Aalbers, Manuel, 5: 2710

    Abercrombie, Patrick, 3: 1363

    Abler, Ronald,1: See Absolute space, 1:

    Academics for Justice, 1: 96

    Accessibility, 1:

    Acemoglu, Daron, 5: 2218

    Acid rain, 1:

    Ackerman, Edward, 4: 1897, 2238

    Actor-network theory, 1:

    Adams, John, 3: 1357

    Adaptation to climate change, 1:

    Adaptive harvest management, 1:

    Adaptive radiation, 1:

    Aden, 2: 1054

    Adiabatic temperature changes, 1:

    Adorno, Theodor, 4: 1862, 2230

    Aerial imagery: data, 1:

    Aerial imagery: interpretation, 1:

    Afghanistan Africa

    African Union (AU), 1:

    Agamben, Giorgio, 1:

    Agarwal, Anil, 3: 1575

    Agarwal, Bina, 2: 819–820

    Agassiz, Louis, 4: 2180

    Agent-based models (ABMs), 1:

    Agglomeration economies, 1:

    See

    Aging, the aged. See

    Aglietta, Michel, 5: 2399, 2401

    Agnese, Battista, 4: 1814 (fig.)

    Agnew, John, 1:

    Agrawal, Arun, 1: 530

    Agricultural biotechnology, 1:

    Agricultural intensification, 1:

    Agricultural land use, 1:

    Agricultural maps

    Agriculture, industrialized, 1:

    Agriculture, preindustrial, 1:

    Agrobiodiversity, 1:

    Agrochemical pollution, 1:

    Agroecology, 1: Agrofoods, 1: Agroforestry, 1: See See

    Airborne Real-Time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER), 1: 18

    Air masses, 1: Air pollution. See Alaska Albania Albedo, 1:

    Albrecht, Jochen, 1: 72

    Aleksandrova, V., 1: 247

    Alesina, Alberto, 5: 2217

    Alexander, Lewis, 5: 2307

    Alexander the Great, 2: 1051

    Algeria al-Idrisi, 1:

    Alker, Hayward, 2: 824

    Allen, Chris, 4: 2168

    Alonso, William, 5: 2236, 2393, 2394, 2395

    Alps, 3: 1087 Althusser, Louis

    Altieri, Miguel, 1: 54

    Altitude, 1:

    Amazon River, Amazonia

    Ambient air quality, 1:

    American Association of Geographers, 3: 1492

    American Cartographic Association, 4: 1939

    American Geographical Society (AGS), 1:

    American Geographical Society (AGS): noted members

    American Geophysical Union, 3: 1245

    American Housing Survey (AHS) data, 4: 1998–1999

    American Planning Association, land-based classification standard system of, 4: 1730–1731, 1730 (tables), 1731 (tables)

    American Society for Environmental History, 2: 929

    American Society of Landscape Architects, 4: 1699

    American Society of Photogrammetry, 1: 15

    Americans with Disabilities Act, 1: 5

    Amin, Ash, 5: 2268, 2352

    Amnesty International, 1:

    Analytical operations in GIS, 1:

    Anarchism and geography, 1:

    Anaximander, 1:

    Anderson, Benedict, 3: 1527

    Anderson, James, 4: 1728

    Anderson, Kay, 3: 1530, 2338, 2340

    Anderson, Nels, 4: 2121

    Andreev, V., 1: 247

    Andropov, Uri, 2: 594

    Angola

    Animal geographies, 1:

    Annales School (of history), 1:

    Anselin, Luc, 1: Antarctica Antevs, Ernst, 1:

    Anthony, Susan B., 3: 1095

    Anthropocene geologic epoch, 3: 1334

    Anthropogenic climate change, 1:

    Anthropogeography, 1:

    Antiglobalization, 1:

    Antipodes, 1:

    Antisystemic movements (ASMs), 1:

    See

    Appleton, Jay, 4: 1716

    Applied geography, 1:

    Aquaculture, 1: Arabia Archipelago, 1:

    Architecture and geography, 1:

    Archive of American Folk Song, 4: 1968 (photo)

    Arctic Arctic Ocean

    Arendt, Hannah, 5: 2378

    Argentina

    Argumentation maps, 1:

    Arid topography, 1: Aristotle, 1: Arizona Armenia Armstrong, Marc, 1:

    Arnstein, Sherry, 4: 2126–2127

    Art and geography, 1:

    Arthur, Brian, 4: 2133

    Aruba, 1: 512 See Asia

    Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

    See

    Association of American Geographers (AAG), 1:

    Association of American Geographers (AAG): noted members

    Association of Geographic Information Laboratories for Europe (AGILE), 1:

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 1:

    Atlanta, Georgia Atlantic Ocean

    Atmospheric circulation, 1:

    Atmospheric composition and structure, 1:

    Atmospheric energy transfer, 1:

    Atmospheric moisture, 1:

    Atmospheric particulates across scales, 1:

    Atmospheric pollution, 1:

    Atmospheric pressure, 1:

    Atmospheric remote sensing, 1:

    Atmospheric variations in energy, 1:

    Atoll, 1: See

    Augelli, John P., 2: 567

    Auletta, Ken, 6: 2998

    Australia Austria

    Automobile industry, 1:

    Automobility, 1: Avalanches, 1:

    Aviation and geography, 1:

    Azerbaijan Azores, 2: 1051 Argumentation maps

    स्रोत : sk.sagepub.com

    European exploration

    In the 100 years from the mid-15th to the mid-16th century, a combination of circumstances stimulated men to seek new routes, and it was new routes rather than new lands that filled the minds of kings and commoners, scholars and seamen. First, toward the end of the 14th century, the vast empire of the Mongols was breaking up; thus, Western merchants could no longer be assured of safe-conduct along the land routes. Second, the Ottoman Turks and the Venetians controlled commercial access to the Mediterranean and the ancient sea routes from the East. Third, new nations on the Atlantic shores

    The sea route west to Cathay

    It is not known when the idea originated of sailing westward in order to reach Cathay. Many sailors set forth searching for islands in the west; and it was a commonplace among scientists that the east could be reached by sailing west, but to believe this a practicable voyage was an entirely different matter. Christopher Columbus, a Genoese who had settled in Lisbon about 1476, argued that Cipango lay a mere 2,500 nautical miles west of the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic. He took 45 instead of 60 nautical miles as the value of a degree; he accepted Ptolemy’s exaggerated west–east extent of Asia and then added to it the lands described by Marco Polo, thus reducing the true distance between the Canaries and Cipango by about one-third. He could not convince the Portuguese scientists nor the merchants of Lisbon that his idea was worth backing; but eventually he obtained the support of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. The sovereigns probably argued that the cost of equipping the expedition would not be very great; the loss, if it failed, could be borne; the gain, should it succeed, was incalculable—indeed, it might divert to Spain all the wealth of Asia.

    On August 3, 1492, Columbus sailed from Palos, Spain, with three small ships manned by Spaniards. From the Canaries he sailed westward, for, on the evidence of the globes and maps in which he had faith, Japan was on the same latitude. If Japan should be missed, Columbus thought that the route adopted would land him, only a little further on, on the coast of China itself. Fair winds favoured him, the sea was calm, and, on October 12, landfall was made on the Bahama island of Guanahaní, which he renamed San Salvador (also called Watling Island, though Samana Cay and other islands have been identified as Guanahaní). With the help of the local Indians, the ships reached Cuba and then Haiti. Although there was no sign of the wealth of the lands of Kublai Khan, Columbus nevertheless seemed convinced that he had reached China, since, according to his reckoning, he was beyond Japan. A second voyage in 1493 and 1494, searching fruitlessly for the court of Kublai Khan, further explored the islands of “the Indies.” Doubts seem to have arisen among the would-be colonists as to the identity of the islands since Columbus demanded that all take an oath that Cuba was the southeast promontory of Asia—the Golden Chersonese. On his third voyage, in 1498, Columbus sighted Trinidad, entered the Gulf of Paria, on the coast of what is now Venezuela, and annexed for Spain “a very great continent…until today unknown.” On a fourth voyage, from 1502 to 1504, he explored the coast of Central America from Honduras to Darien on the Isthmus of Panama, seeking a navigable passage to the west. What passage he had in mind is obscure; if at this point he still believed he had reached Asia, it is conceivable that he sought a way through Ptolemy’s Golden Chersonese into the Indian Ocean.

    Columbus’s tenacity, courage, and skill in navigation make him stand out among the few explorers who have changed substantially ideas about the world. At the time, however, his efforts must have seemed ill-rewarded: he found no emperor’s court rich in spices, silks, gold, or precious stones but had to contend with mutinous sailors, dissident colonists, and disappointed sovereigns. He died at Valladolid in 1506. Did he believe to the end that he indeed had reached Cathay, or did he, however dimly, perceive that he had found a New World?

    Whatever Columbus thought, it was clear to others that there was much to be investigated, and probably much to be gained, by exploration westward. Not only in Lisbon and Cádiz but also in other Atlantic ports, groups of men congregated in hopes of joining in the search. In England, Bristol, with its western outlook and Icelandic trade, was the port best placed to nurture adventurous seamen. In the latter part of the 15th century, John Cabot, with his wife and three sons, came to Bristol from Genoa or Venice. His project to sail west gained support, and with one small ship, the Matthew, he set out in May 1497, taking a course due west from Dursey Head, Ireland. His landfall on the other side of the ocean was probably on the northern peninsula of what is now known as Newfoundland. From there, Cabot explored southward, perhaps encouraged to do so, even if seeking a westward passage, by ice in the Strait of Belle Isle. Little is known of John Cabot’s first voyage, and almost nothing of his second, in 1498, from which he did not return, but his voyages in high latitudes represented almost as great a navigational feat as those of Columbus.

    The coasts between the landfalls of Columbus and of John Cabot were charted in the first quarter of the 16th century by Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese sailors. Sebastian Cabot, son of John, gained a great reputation as a navigator and promoter of Atlantic exploration, but whether this was based primarily on his own experience or on the achievements of his father is uncertain. In 1499 Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian merchant living in Sevilla (Seville), together with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda, explored the north coast of South America from Suriname to the Golfo de Venezuela. His lively and embellished description of these lands became popular, and Waldseemüller, on his map of 1507, gave the name America to the southern part of the continent.

    The 1506 map of Contarini represented a brave attempt to collate the mass of new information, true and false, that accrued from these western voyages. The land explored by Columbus on his third voyage and by Vespucci and de Ojeda in 1499 is shown at the bottom left of the map as a promontory of a great northern bulge of a continent extending far to the south. The northeast coast of Asia at the top left is pulled out into a great peninsula on which is shown a big river and some mountains representing Contarini’s concept of Newfoundland and the lands found by the Cabots and others. In the wide sea that separates these northern lands from South America, the West Indies are shown. Halfway between the Indies and the coast of Asia, Japan is drawn. A legend placed between Japan and China reveals the state of opinion among at least some contemporary geographers; it presumably refers to the fourth voyage of Columbus in 1502 and may be an addition to the map. It runs:

    स्रोत : www.britannica.com

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