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    Geographical Exploration

    Geographical Exploration

    Geographical Exploration Related terms:

    Identity PoliticsRenaissanceGeographyHuman GeographyGeographers

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    Folk Religion

    M.A. Taylor, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001

    2 Explorations and Learning in Europe

    Throughout Europe, the geographical explorations and new learning of the Renaissance was followed, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, by increasing interest in man's origins and in the natural world. Great interest was shown in the Americas, Asia, the Pacific islands, and in their inhabitants. Writers ranging from Michel de Montaigne to Jean-Jacques Rousseau drew numerous comparisons between these newly discovered peoples and the ancient founders of European civilization, the Greeks and the Romans. At first this took the form of social speculation, of antiquarianism, and of archaeological excavations, such as the eighteenth century excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum by Johann Winckelmann, which attempted to prove the historical reality of places and events described by the ancient writers. In the nineteenth century, with the expansion of the French and British empires, the interest in antiquity began to include the Middle East. Efforts were made to verify sites mentioned in the Bible. This was partly in response to devastating scientific attacks upon the literal creationism of the Book of Genesis, notably those made by the concepts of geological time, and by evolutionism (as expressed in Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species on the Basis of Natural Selection 1859). As well as those interested in establishing the origins of mankind through Biblical truths, others sought the missionisation and Christian conversion of technologically simple peoples recently encountered in Africa, Australia, and other newly colonized areas. Others saw possible parallels between such people's behavior, customs, and beliefs, and those of early humans.

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    Endemism

    R.M. Cowling, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2001

    Biases

    Endemism is influenced by taxonomic interpretation, sampling error, and human perceptions of rarity. Of particular importance is the fact that limited geographical exploration, as well as variation in the application of taxonomic concepts, introduces biases in the identification of endemics and the significance of their status. Pseudoendemics are widespread species incorrectly classified as endemics, whereas nonapparent endemics are endemic species that are incorrectly classified as widespread. The fact that widespread species are usually more thoroughly researched than those with smaller range sizes introduces biases in studies that explore the correlates of range size.

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    Radical Geography

    R. Peet, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 2009

    Radical Geographical Practice

    The early days of radical geography were characterized also by extensions of the political activism typical of the anti-war and civil rights movements into more obviously ‘geographical’ arenas. In 1968, William Bunge, previously a leading quantitative–theoretical geographer, founded the Society for Human Exploration. This called for rediscovering geographic skills of exploration (this being meant in an ironic sense) and using them for new, political purposes that reversed their previous intention. For Bunge “the tyranny of fact compels that geographers go into a state of rationally controlled frenzy about the exploration of the human condition” by forming ‘expeditions’ to the poorest areas of cities, contributing to, rather than taking from, communities, planning with, rather than for, people. Geographers should become people of the regions they explore, should discover the kinds of research people need doing, and address themselves energetically to these problems. Local people should be trained in geographic skills so they could become part of the solution, rather than being mere passive objects of study. Thus, in response to a request from a black community organization, the Detroit Geographical Expedition prepared a report on school desegregation which maximized black control over black children's education. A report on Trumbull, a working class inner-Detroit neighborhood, countered plans for expansion by Wayne State University. Furthermore, as part of the training program of the Expedition, courses were organized at Michigan State University that enrolled 670 students before expeditionary principles such as community control and free tuition led to the educational project being terminated by officials of the university. Also, by 1973, the Detroit Geographical Expedition ceased to function beset by problems such as the ‘enforced mobility’ (to Canada) of its founder and student members, and the refusal of nearby universities to grant tenure to supportive faculty members. Expeditionary movements were carried to Toronto (Canada), Sydney (Australia), and London (England) in the resulting diaspora, where they survived into the late 1970s.

    Within the discipline of geography, a Union of Socialist Geographers (USG), founded in 1974, organized a couple of hundred members in North America in its first year, and a hundred more members in Britain soon after. Its most successful union local (at Simon Frazier University in Burnaby, British Columbia) enrolled 50 student members and participated in several expeditionary and advocacy activities in the city of Vancouver. Members of the USG organized special sessions at AAG conventions and Institute of British Geographers (IBG) annual meetings on topics like imperialism, women, and revolutionary theory, much to the dismay of the old guard in the discipline of geography (‘is this geography?’). As an active force the USG lasted until the early 1980s when its place was taken by socialist specialty groups within the dominant disciplinary institutions – a sign that what was once oppositional had been ‘disciplined’.

    स्रोत : www.sciencedirect.com

    Age of Discovery

    Age of Discovery

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    A replica caravel the "", navigating the Tagus river, Lisboa. These smaller vessels played a significant role in Iberian exploration.

    The managed to carry out the first circumnavigation in history. The present image shows a replica of , built in 1992, visiting Nagoya, Japan, for Expo 2005.

    The Age of Discovery (or the Age of Exploration), also known as the early modern period, was a period largely overlapping with the Age of Sail, approximately from the 15th century to the 17th century in European history, in which seafaring Europeans explored regions across the globe.

    The extensive overseas exploration, with the Portuguese and Spanish at the forefront, later joined by the Dutch, English, and French, emerged as a powerful factor in European culture, most notably the European encounter and colonization of the Americas. It also marks an increased adoption of colonialism as a government policy in several European states. As such, it is sometimes synonymous with the first wave of European colonization.

    European exploration outside the Mediterranean started with the maritime expeditions of Portugal to the Canary Islands in 1336,[1] and later with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Azores, the coast of West Africa in 1434 and the establishment of the sea route to India in 1498 by Vasco da Gama, which is often considered a very remarkable voyage, as it initiated the Portuguese maritime and trade presence in Kerala and the Indian Ocean.[2][3]

    A main event in the Age of Discovery took place when Spain sponsored the transatlantic voyages of Christopher Columbus between 1492 and 1504, which saw the beginning of the colonization of the Americas. Years later, the Spanish expedition of Magellan–Elcano expedition made the first circumnavigation of the globe between 1519 and 1522, which was regarded as a major achievement in seamanship, and had a significant impact on the European understanding of the world. These discoveries led to numerous naval expeditions across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, and land expeditions in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia that continued into the late 19th century, followed by the exploration of the polar regions in the 20th century.

    European overseas exploration led to the rise of international trade and the European colonial empires, with the contact between the Old World (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and the New World (the Americas), as well as Australia, producing the Columbian exchange, a wide transfer of plants, animals, food, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The Age of Discovery and later European exploration allowed the mapping of the world, resulting in a new worldview and distant civilizations coming into contact. At the same time, new diseases were propagated, decimating populations not previously in contact with the Old World, particularly concerning Native Americans. The era saw the widespread enslavement, exploitation and military conquest of native populations concurrent with the growing economic influence and spread of European culture and technology.

    Contents

    1 Concept 2 Overview 3 Background

    3.1 Rise of European trade

    3.2 Technology: Ship design and the compass

    3.3 Early geographical knowledge and maps

    3.4 Medieval European travel (1241–1438)

    3.5 Chinese missions (1405–1433)

    4 Atlantic Ocean (1419–1507)

    4.1 Portuguese exploration

    4.1.1 Portuguese exploration after Prince Henry

    4.2 Spanish exploration: Columbus's landfall in the Americas

    4.3 Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

    4.4 The Americas: The New World

    4.4.1 North America

    4.4.2 The "True Indies" and Brazil

    5 Indian Ocean (1497–1513)

    5.1 Vasco da Gama's route to India

    5.2 The "Spice Islands" and China

    6 Pacific Ocean (1513–1529)

    6.1 Balboa's expedition to the Pacific Ocean

    6.2 Subsequent developments to the east

    6.3 First circumnavigation

    6.4 Westward and eastward exploration meet

    7 Inland Spanish expeditions (1519–1532)

    7.1 Cortés' Mexico and the Aztec Empire

    7.2 Pizarro's Peru and the Inca Empire

    8 Major new trade routes (1542–1565)

    9 Northern European involvement (1595–17th century)

    9.1 Exploring North America

    9.2 Search for a northern route

    9.2.1 Barentsz' Arctic exploration

    9.3 Dutch Australia and New Zealand

    10 Russian exploration of Siberia (1581–1660)

    10.1 Conquest of the Khanate of Sibir

    10.2 Siberian river routes

    10.3 Russians reach the Pacific

    11 Global impact

    11.1 Economic impact in Europe

    12 See also 13 Footnotes 14 References 14.1 Bibliography

    14.1.1 Primary sources

    14.1.2 Secondary works

    14.1.3 Web sources 15 Further reading 16 External links

    Concept[edit]

    Main article: Discovery (observation)

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    European exploration

    In the 100 years from the mid-15th to the mid-16th century, a combination of circumstances stimulated men to seek new routes, and it was new routes rather than new lands that filled the minds of kings and commoners, scholars and seamen. First, toward the end of the 14th century, the vast empire of the Mongols was breaking up; thus, Western merchants could no longer be assured of safe-conduct along the land routes. Second, the Ottoman Turks and the Venetians controlled commercial access to the Mediterranean and the ancient sea routes from the East. Third, new nations on the Atlantic shores

    The Age of Discovery

    European exploration

    In the 100 years from the mid-15th to the mid-16th century, a combination of circumstances stimulated men to seek new routes, and it was new routes rather than new lands that filled the minds of kings and commoners, scholars and seamen. First, toward the end of the 14th century, the vast empire of the Mongols was breaking up; thus, Western merchants could no longer be assured of safe-conduct along the land routes. Second, the Ottoman Turks and the Venetians controlled commercial access to the Mediterranean and the ancient sea routes from the East. Third, new nations on the Atlantic shores of Europe were now ready to seek overseas trade and adventure.

    The sea route east by south to Cathay

    European exploration of the African coast

    Henry the Navigator, prince of Portugal, initiated the first great enterprise of the Age of Discovery—the search for a sea route east by south to Cathay. His motives were mixed. He was curious about the world; he was interested in new navigational aids and better ship design and was eager to test them; he was also a Crusader and hoped that, by sailing south and then east along the coast of Africa, Arab power in North Africa could be attacked from the rear. The promotion of profitable trade was yet another motive; he aimed to divert the Guinea trade in gold and ivory away from its routes across the Sahara to the Moors of Barbary (North Africa) and instead channel it via the sea route to Portugal.

    Expedition after expedition was sent forth throughout the 15th century to explore the coast of Africa. In 1445 the Portuguese navigator Dinís Dias reached the mouth of the Sénégal, which “men say comes from the Nile, being one of the most glorious rivers of Earth, flowing from the Garden of Eden and the earthly paradise.” Once the desert coast had been passed, the sailors pushed on: in 1455 and 1456 Alvise Ca’ da Mosto made voyages to Gambia and the Cape Verde Islands. Prince Henry died in 1460 after a career that had brought the colonization of the Madeira Islands and the Azores and the traversal of the African coast to Sierra Leone. Henry’s captain, Diogo Cão, discovered the Congo River in 1482. All seemed promising; trade was good with the riverine peoples, and the coast was trending hopefully eastward. Then the disappointing fact was realized: the head of a great gulf had been reached, and, beyond, the coast seemed to stretch endlessly southward. Yet, when Columbus sought backing for his plan to sail westward across the Atlantic to the Indies, he was refused—“seeing that King John II [of Portugal] ordered the coast of Africa to be explored with the intention of going by that route to India.”

    John II of Portugal

    King John II sought to establish two routes: the first, a land and sea route through Egypt and Ethiopia to the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean and, the second, a sea route around the southern shores of Africa, the latter an act of faith, since Ptolemy’s map showed a landlocked Indian Ocean. In 1487, a Portuguese emissary, Pêro da Covilhã, successfully followed the first route; but, on returning to Cairo, he reported that, in order to travel to India, the Portuguese “could navigate by their coasts and the seas of Guinea.” In the same year, another Portuguese navigator, Bartolomeu Dias, found encouraging evidence that this was so. In 1487 he rounded the Cape of Storms in such bad weather that he did not see it, but he satisfied himself that the coast was now trending northeastward; before turning back, he reached the Great Fish River, in what is now South Africa. On the return voyage, he sighted the Cape and set up a pillar upon it to mark its discovery.

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    history of Europe: Discovery of the New World

    In the Iberian Peninsula the impetus of the counteroffensive against the Moors carried the Portuguese to probe the West African coastline...

    The seaway was now open, but eight years were to elapse before it was exploited. In 1492 Columbus had apparently reached the East by a much easier route. By the end of the decade, however, doubts of the validity of Columbus’s claim were current. Interest was therefore renewed in establishing the sea route south by east to the known riches of India. In 1497 a Portuguese captain, Vasco da Gama, sailed in command of a fleet under instructions to reach Calicut (Kozhikode), on India’s west coast. This he did after a magnificent voyage around the Cape of Storms (which he renamed the Cape of Good Hope) and along the unknown coast of East Africa. Yet another Portuguese fleet set out in 1500, this one being under the command of Pedro Álvarez Cabral; on the advice of da Gama, Cabral steered southwestward to avoid the calms of the Guinea coast; thus, en route for Calicut, Brazil was discovered. Soon trading depots, known as factories, were built along the African coast, at the strategic entrances to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, and along the shores of the Indian peninsula. In 1511 the Portuguese established a base at Malacca (now Melaka, Malaysia), commanding the straits into the China Sea; in 1511 and 1512, the Moluccas, or Spice Islands, and Java were reached; in 1557 the trading port of Macau was founded at the mouth of the Canton River. Europe had arrived in the East. It was in the end the Portuguese, not the Turks, who destroyed the commercial supremacy of the Italian cities, which had been based on a monopoly of Europe’s trade with the East by land. But Portugal was soon overextended; it was therefore the Dutch, the English, and the French who in the long run reaped the harvest of Portuguese enterprise.

    स्रोत : www.britannica.com

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