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    NCERT Solution Class 11 Geography The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    Download NCERT Solution Class 11 Geography The Origin and Evolution of the Earth free pdf, NCERT Solutions updated as per latest NCERT book

    NCERT Solution Class 11 Geography The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    Download PDF Geography

    NCERT Solution Class 11 Geography The Origin and Evolution of the Earth with answers available in Pdf for free download. The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography with answers have been prepared as per the latest syllabus, NCERT books and examination pattern suggested in Standard 11 by CBSE, NCERT and KVS. Solutions to questions given in NCERT book for Class 11 Geography are an important part of exams for Grade 11 Geography and if practiced properly can help you to get higher marks. Refer to more Chapter-wise Solutions for NCERT Class 11 Geography and also download more latest study material for all subjects

    The Origin and Evolution of the Earth Class 11 NCERT Solutions

    Class 11 Geography students should refer to the following NCERT questions with answers for The Origin and Evolution of the Earth in standard 11. These NCERT Solutions with answers for Grade 11 Geography will come in exams and help you to score good marks

    The Origin and Evolution of the Earth NCERT Solutions Class 11

    NCERT Solution for Class 11 Geography for chapter 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth1. Multiple choice question(i) Which one of the following figures represents the age of the earth?(a) 4.6 million years

    (b) 13.7 billion years

    (c) 4.6 billion years

    (d) 13.7 trillion years

    Answer: (c) 4.6 billion years

    (ii) Which one of the following has the longest duration?(a) Eons(b) Period

    (c) Era (d) Epoch

    Answer: (a) Eons(iii) Which one of the following is not related to the formation or modification of the present atmosphere?(a) Solar winds

    (b) Differentiation (c) Degassing

    (d) PhotosynthesisAnswer: (b) Differentiation

    (iv) Which one of the following represents the inner planets?

    (a) Planets between the sun and the earth(b) Planets between the sun and the belt of asteroids(c) Planets in gaseous state(d) Planets without satellite(s)Answer: (b) Planets between the sun and the belt of asteroids

    (v) Life on the earth appeared around how many years before the present?

    (a) 13.7 billion

    (b) 4.6 billion (c) 3.8 million (d) 3.8 billion

    Answer: (d) 3.8 billion

    2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words

    (i) Why are the terrestrial planets rocky?

    Answer: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are called "rocky" or "terrestrial" planets. Terrestrial planets mean earth-like planets. These are similar to Earth in composition. Heat from the Sun evaporated lightweight elements like hydrogen and helium into interplanetary space. Mostly rock and metal was left in this zone and clumped together to form the inner rocky planets.

    (ii) What is the basic difference in the arguments related to the origin of the earth given by:

    (a) Kant and LaplaceAnswer: Immanuel Kant argued that the earth was formed from small and cold particles. Laplace revised this theory and postulated nebular hypothesis. The hypothesis considered that the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with the youthful sun.(b) Chamberlain and MoultonAnswer: Chamberlain and Moulton considered that a wandering star approached the sun. As a result, a cigar- shaped extension of material was separated from the surface of the sun. As the passing star moved away, the material continued to revolve around the sun and it slowly condensed into planets.(iii) What is meant by the process of differentiation?Answer: The process through which the earth forming material got separated into different layers is called differentiation. The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells, like an onion and it may be divided into the crust, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core and inner core.(iv) What was the nature of the earth surface initially?Answer: In the beginning, the earth was barren, rocky and hot sphere with a very thin atmosphere consisting of hydrogen and helium.

    (v) What were the gases which initially formed the earth’s atmosphere?

    Answer: Initially the earth's atmosphere consisted of hydrogen and helium. Later on, the earth's atmosphere was stripped off these gases due to solar winds.

    3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words

    (i) Write an explanatory note on the ‘Big Bang Theory’.Answer: The most popular argument regarding the origin of the universe is the Big Bang Theory. It is also called expanding universe hypothesis. In 1920, Edwin Hubble provided evidence that the universe is expanding. The Big Bang Theory was postulated in 1950s and 1960s and validated in 1972. According to this theory, everything in the universe emerged from a point known as singularity about 13.7 billion years ago. As the universe expanded, the hot radiation in the original fireball also expanded and cooled down. Misty clouds of matter already existed. As those clouds collapsed upon themselves, they were pulled together by their own gravity and formed clusters of galaxies with the galaxies themselves breaking up into stars like those of the Milky Way. The stars might have broken up to form their planets like those of our solar system.

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    Class 11 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    Class 11 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth Class 11 Geography Chapter 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved 1. Multiple choice questions. Question 1(i). Which one of the following figures represents the age of the earth? (a) 4.6 million years (b) 13.7 billion years (c) 4.6 billion years (d) 13.7 […]

    Class 11 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    July 24, 2019 by Bhagya

    Class 11 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    Class 11 Geography Chapter 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

    1. Multiple choice questions.

    Question 1(i).

    Which one of the following figures represents the age of the earth?

    (a) 4.6 million years

    (b) 13.7 billion years

    (c) 4.6 billion years

    (d) 13.7 trillion years.

    Answer:

    (b) 4.6 billion years

    Question 1(ii).

    Which one of the following has the longest duration?

    (a) Eons (b) Period (c) Era (d) Epoch. Answer: (a) Eons Question 1(iii).

    Which one of the following is not related to the formation or modification of the present atmosphere?

    (a) Solar winds (b) Differentiation (c) Degassing (d) Photosynthesis. Answer: (b) Differentiation Question 1(iv).

    Which one of the following represents the inner planets?

    (a) Planets between the sun and the earth

    (b) Planets between the sun and the belt of asteroids

    (c) Planets in gaseous state

    (d) Planets without satellite(s).

    Answer:

    (d) Planets without satellite(s)

    Question 1(v).

    Life on the earth appeared around how

    many years before the present?

    (a) 13.7 billion (b) 3.8 million (c) 4.6 billion (d) 3.8 billion. Answer: (d) 3.8 billion.

    2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

    Question 2(i).

    Why are the terrestrial planets rocky? Answer: Terrestrial planets are rocky because:

    The terrestrial planets were formed in the close vicinity of the parent star where it was too warm for gases to condense to solid particles.

    The solar wind was most intense nearer the sun; so, it blew off lots of gas and dust from the terrestrial planets.

    The terrestrial planets are smaller and their lower gravity could not hold the escaping gases.

    Question 2(ii).

    What is the basic difference in the arguments related to the origin of the earth given by (a) Kant and Laplace (b) Chamberlain and Moulton.

    Answer:

    1. Kant and Laplace’s Principle: The hypothesis considered that the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with a youthful sun, which was slowly rotating. According to this principle which emerged in 1796, the interior of the earth must be gaseous because the earth has originated from gas form.

    2. Chamberlain and Moulton: In 1900, Chamberlain and Moulton considered that a wandering star approached the sun. As a result, a cigar-shaped extension of material was separated from the solar surface. As the passing star moved away, the material separated from the solar surface continued to revolve around the sun and it slowly condensed into planets. Later on, the arguments considered of a companion to the sun to have been coexisting. These arguments are called binary theories.

    Question 2(iii).

    What is meant by the process of differentiation?

    Answer:

    Starting from the surface to the central parts, we have layers like the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. From the crust to the core, the density of the material increases. This process of the earth forming material got separated into different layers is called differentiation.

    Question 2(iv).

    What was the nature of the earth surface initially?

    Answer:

    The planet earth initially was a barren, rocky and hot object with a thin atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. This is far from the present day picture of the earth. It is said that in initial stage the earth was in liquid form. Certainly, there must have been some events- processes, which may have caused this change from rocky, barren and hot earth to a beautiful planet with ample amount of water and conducive atmosphere favouring the existence of life.

    Question 2(v).

    What were the gases which initially formed the earth’s atmosphere?

    Answer:

    Hydrogen’ and helium were the gases which initially formed the earth’s surface. The early atmosphere with hydrogen and helium is supposed to have been stripped off as a result of intense solar wind. This happened not only in the case of earth, but also in all the terrestrial planets which were supposed to have lost their primordial atmosphere through the impact of solar winds. During the cooling of the earth, gases and water vapour were released from the interior solid earth. Continuous volcanic eruptions contributed water vapour and gases at atmosphere. It was the first „ stage of atmosphere development.

    3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

    Question 3(i).

    Write an explanatory note on the ‘Big Bang Theory’.

    Answer:

    The Big Bang Theory, also called as expanding universe hypothesis. Edwin Hubble in 1920 provided the evidence that the universe is expanding. The galaxies move farther as the time passes. It says that galaxies are moving away from each other. The universe appears to be growing larger.

    The Big Bang Theory:-

    1. In the beginning, ail matter forming the universe existed in one place in the form of a ‘tiny ball” with an unimaginably small volume, infinite temperature and infinite density.

    2. At the Big Bang “tiny ball” exploded violently. This led to a huge expansion. It is now/ generally accepted that the event of big bang took place 13,7 billion years before the present. The expansion continues even to the present day. As it grew7, some energy was converted into matter. There was particularly rapid expansion within fractions of a second after the bang. Thereafter, the expansion has slowed down. Within first three minutes from the Big Bang event, the first atom began to form.

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    NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    20 Jun, 2017

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11th: Ch 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth

    Exercises

    Page No: 19

    1. Multiple Choice Questions: (i) Which one of the following figures represents the age of the earth?

    (a) 4.6 million years

    (b) 13.7 billion years

    (c) 4.6 billion years

    (d) 13.7 trillion years

    ► (c) 4.6 billion years

    (ii) Which one of the following has the longest duration?

    (a) Eons (b) Period (c) Era (d) Epoch ► (a) Eons

    (iii) Which one of the following is not related to the formation or modification of the present atmosphere?

    (a) Solar winds (b) Differentiation (c) Degassing (d) Photosynthesis

    ► (b) Differentiation

    (iv) Which one of the following represents the inner planets?

    (a) Planets between the sun and the earth

    (b) Planets between the sun and the belt of asteroids

    (c) Planets in gaseous state

    (d) Planets without satellite(s)

    ► (b) Planets between the sun and the belt of asteroids

    (v) Life on the earth appeared around how many years before the present?

    (a) 13.7 billion (b) 3.8 million (c) 4.6 billion (d) 3.8 billion ► (d) 3.8 billion

    2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

    (i) Why are the terrestrial planets rocky?

    Answer

    The terrestrial planets are rocky because:

    • The terrestrial planets were formed in the close vicinity of the parent star where it was too warm for gases to condense to solid particles. Jovian planets were formed at quite a distant location.

    • The solar wind was most intense nearer the sun; so, it blew off lots of gas and dust from the terrestrial planets. The solar winds were not all that intense to cause similar removal of gases from the Jovian planets.

    • The terrestrial planets are smaller and their lower gravity could not hold the escaping gases.

    (ii) What is the basic difference in the arguments related to the origin of the earth given by :

    (a) Kant and Laplace

    (b) Chamberlain and Moulton

    Answer

    The Nebular Hypothesis, proposed by Immanuel Kant and later revised by Laplace in 1796 considered that the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with a youthful sun, which was slowly rotating while, in 1900, Chamberlain and Moulton considered that a wandering star approached the sun. As a result, a cigar-shaped material separated from the solar surface. As the passing star moved away, the material separated from the sun, continued to revolve around the sun and it slowly condensed into planets.

    Page No: 20

    (iii) What is meant by the process of differentiation?

    Answer

    The process by which earth forming material got separated into different layers is called differentiation. Starting from the surface to the central parts, we have layers like the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. From the crust to the core, the density of the material increases.

    (iv) What was the nature of the earth surface initially?

    Answer

    The planet earth initially was a barren, rocky and hot object with a thin atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. This is far from the present day picture of the earth.

    (v) What were the gases which initially formed the earth’s atmosphere?

    Answer

    Hydrogen and helium were the gases which intially formed the earth's atmosphere. The early atmosphere, with hydrogen and helium, is supposed to have been stripped off as a result of the solar winds. During the cooling of the earth, gases and water vapour were released from the interior solid earth. This started the evolution of the present atmosphere.

    3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

    (i) Write an explanatory note on the ‘Big Bang Theory’.

    Answer

    The 'Big Bang Theory' also known as expanding universe hypothesis. Edwin Hubble, in 1920, provided evidence that the universe is expanding. The distance between the galaxies is also found to be increasing and thereby, the universe is considered to be expanding.

    Various stages in the development of the universe according to Big Bang Theory are:

    • In the beginning, all matter forming the universe existed in one place in the form of a “tiny ball” (singular atom) with an unimaginably small volume, infinite temperature and infinite density.

    • At the Big Bang the “tiny ball” exploded violently. This led to a huge expansion. It is now generally accepted that the event of big bang took place 13.7 billion years before the present. The expansion

    continues even to the present day. As it grew, some energy was converted into matter. There was particularly rapid expansion within fractions of a second after the bang. Thereafter, the expansion has slowed down. Within first three minutes from the Big Bang event, the first atom began to form.

    • Within 300,000 years from the Big Bang, temperature dropped to 4,500K (Kelvin) and gave rise to atomic matter. The universe became transparent.

    (ii) List the stages in the evolution of the earth and explain each stage in brief.

    Answer

    Stage I: The earth was mostly in a volatile state during its primordial stage. Due to gradual increase

    in density the temperature inside has increased. As a result, the material inside started getting separated depending on their densities.

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