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    Three Dimensional Electron Microscopy/Electron microscopes

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    Three Dimensional Electron Microscopy/Electron microscopes

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    Contents

    1 What is an Electron Microscope?

    2 An Electron Microscope vs. a Traditional Light Microscope

    3 Types of Microscopy

    4 History

    5 Current Applications

    6 References

    What is an Electron Microscope?[edit | edit source]

    EM

    An electron microscope (EM) is an imaging instrument that uses electrons to see a sample instead of light which is used in the traditional light microscope. In general, an electron microscope works by applying a beam of electrons to a very thinly sliced or diluted sample. The electrons will either bounce off or pass through the sample and an image will be collected depending on the type of microscopy being utilized.

    The resolution capability of an electron microscope is much greater than that of a light microscope, generally obtaining a magnification of 100,000X which is 50,000X greater than a traditional light microscope. The resolution difference can be attributed to the energy source of the microscopes as well as the methods of detection by instruments far more sensitive than the human eye. Light microscopes are capable of resolving about 200 nm in size. Electron microscopes in have the ability to resolve approximately 2 Å. There have been reports of electron microscopes reaching a resolution of 0.5 Å[1].

    An Electron Microscope vs. a Traditional Light Microscope[edit | edit source]

    A traditional light microscope and an electron microscope operate on similar principles. Both microscopes contain an energy source, a condenser lens, a specimen holder, an objective lens, and a projector lens. In both cases, energy is directed at a sample and an image is produced. A major differing feature of each microscope is the energy source. In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted from an electron gun, while in the light microscope the energy is generated by a light bulb. Another important difference between the two microscopes is the composition of the lens. The lens of a light microscope are made of glass and are typically spherical. In contrast, an electron microscope’s lenses are electromagnetic and electrostatic. The electromagnetic lens mainly consists of coiled copper wires. In the optical microscope light travels from the source, is split up, and then is refocused to be viewed by the human eye. In an electron microscope the electrons are passed through or bounced off of the sample and are ultimately imaged on film, a fluorescent screen or collected by an electron detector.

    A unique feature of the electron microscope is the sample holder and environmental condition of the sample chamber. The sample grid, either suspended in vitreous ice or negatively stained, is placed onto the electron microscope holder. The holder is then inserted into a closed chamber, where it can be rotated at varying degrees to be imaged at specific, user selected, angles. The environment of the microscope chamber is maintained under vacuum to facilitate the directed travel of the electron beam.

    Types of Microscopy[edit | edit source]

    There are several types of microscopy where an electron microscope is used. The various electron microscopy techniques are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Reflection Electron Microscopy (REM), and Scanning Transmition Microscopy (STEM). The most commonly used techniques are SEM and TEM.

    Transmission Electron Microscopy works by directing the flow of electrons at a sample. TEM requires a very thin sample specimen that can endure high energy electrons, as the electrons are transmitted through the sample. As the electrons of the beam interact with the sample, an image is formed. In essence, the “shadow” of the image, created in the places were the electrons interacted with the sample, is projected onto the detector.

    Bacillus_subtilis imaged using TEM

    During SEM, an electron beam scans the surface of the sample and the electrons or X rays that are emitted from the surface are detected. The signals produced are used to derive information about the sample's surface topography. Various types of energy can be used, but the most common is secondary electrons excited by the initial interaction with the electron beam. SEM details the surface of a sample, while TEM details the entire sample.

    Pollen imaged by SEM

    History[edit | edit source]

    The first model of an electron microscope was built by Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll in 1931[2]. This initial model was only capable of magnification at 400x. Two years later, an electron microscope capable of magnifications greater than the traditional microscope was developed. In 1938 Max Knoll created the first scanning electron microscope which was refined by Manfred Von Ardenne to give better resolution.

    स्रोत : en.wikibooks.org

    (a) What is the energy source for the electron microscope? (b) What is the energy source for the compound microscope?

    Answer to: (a) What is the energy source for the electron microscope? (b) What is the energy source for the compound microscope? By signing up,...

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    (a) What is the energy source for the electron microscope? (b) What is the energy source for the...

    (a) What is the energy source for the electron microscope? (b) What is the energy source for the... Question:

    (a) What is the energy source for the electron microscope?

    (b) What is the energy source for the compound microscope?

    Microscopes:

    A microscope is a commonly seen piece of equipment in most laboratories. Microscopes are used to visualize and amplify the image of samples that would otherwise be too small to observe with the naked eye. There are many different types of microscopes, including: light microscopes, electron microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes.

    Answer and Explanation:

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    An electron microscope uses a beam of accelerated electrons as the energy source for producing an image of the sample, whereas the energy source for the compound microscope is a beam of light.

    There are two main types of electron microscopes: the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In scanning electron microscopy, the beam of electrons is reflected back off the surface of the specimen to create the image. In transmission electron microscopy, the beam of electrons actually passes through the sample to create the image.

    Two main types of light microscopes are the...

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    Learn more about this topic:

    Types of Microscopes: Electron, Light & Fluorescence

    from

    Chapter 10 / Lesson 1

    22K

    Learn about different types of microscopes and their uses. Understand the three types of microscopes, which are fluorescence, light, and electron microscopes, and the differences among them.

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    स्रोत : homework.study.com

    3.3F: Electron Microscopy

    Electron microscopy uses magnetic coils to direct a beam of electrons from a tungsten filament through a specimen and onto a monitor.

    3.3F: Electron Microscopy

    Last updated Page ID Boundless Boundless Learning Objectives

    Describe the technique employed for electron microscopy, distinguishing between different types

    Electron microscopy uses a beam of electrons as an energy source. An electron beam has an exceptionally short wavelength and can hit most objects in its path, increasing the resolution of the final image captured. The electron beam is designed to travel in a vacuum to limit interference by air molecules. Magnets are used to focus the electrons on the object viewed.

    Figure: Electron microscope: A modern electron microscope

    There are two types of electron microscopes. The more traditional form is the transmission electron microscope (TEM). To use this instrument, ultra-thin slices of microorganisms or viruses are placed on a wire grid and then stained with gold or palladium before viewing, to create contrast. The densely coated parts of the specimen deflect the electron beam and both dark and light areas show up on the image. TEM can project images in a much higher resolution—up to the atomic level of thinner objects.

    The second and most contemporary form is the scanning electron microscope (SEM). It allows the visualization of microorganisms in three dimensions as the electrons are reflected when passed over the specimen. The same gold or palladium staining is employed.

    Electron microscopy has multiple applications. It is ideal to:

    explore the in vivo molecular mechanisms of disease;

    visualize the three dimensional architecture of tissues and cells;

    determine the conformation of flexible protein structures and complexes;

    observe individual viruses and macromolecular complexes in their natural biological context.

    Sample preparation can be critical to generate a successful image because the choice of reagents and methods used to process a sample largely depends on the nature of the sample and the analysis required.

    Key Points

    A beam of electrons, instead of light, is used with an electron microscope.

    Electron microscopes have a greater magnification because the wavelengths of electrons are much smaller than those of visible light (0.005nm as opposed to 500nm respectively–one hundred thousand times smaller).

    There are two types of electron microscopes, scanning and transmission.

    The best compound light microscopes can magnify 2000x, electron microscopes can magnify up to 100,000x.

    Key Terms

    electron beam: a stream of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.

    स्रोत : bio.libretexts.org

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