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    Sustainable Development Definition: Historical Background and Examples

    What is the definition of sustainable development? How did sustainable development become relevant? A roadmap from the 1st UN Conference until today.

    Sustainable Development – What Is It? Definition, History, Evolution, Importance And Examples

    Last modified on 26thMay 2020

    What is the definition of sustainable development? How has sustainability evolved and changed throughout the years and what are its most important milestones? What shapes sustainable development today?

    The Official Definition Of Sustainable Development

    Sustainable development is the idea that human societies must live and meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The “official” definition of sustainable development was developed for the first time in the Brundtland Report in 1987.

    Specifically, sustainable development is a way of organizing society so that it can exist in the long term. This means taking into account both the imperatives present and those of the future, such as the preservation of the environment and natural resources or social and economic equity.

    Related:

    What Are The 100 Companies With The Best CSR Reputation?

    How Did The Idea Of Sustainable Development Get Relevant?

    The industrial revolution is connected to the rise of the idea of sustainable development. From the second half of the 19th century, Western societies started to discover that their economic and industrial activities had a significant impact on the environment and the social balance. Several ecological and social crises took place in the world and rose awareness that a more sustainable model was needed.

    Here are some examples of the economic and social crises that shook the world in the twentieth century:

    1907: the American banking crisis

    1923: the crisis of American hyperinflation

    1929: the financial crisis of the 1930s begins

    1968: the worldwide protests against bureaucratic elites

    1973 and 1979: oil shocks

    1982: the debt shock of developing countries

    And some examples of ecological crises:

    1954: Rongelap nuclear fallout

    1956: Mercury crisis of Minamata

    1957: Torrey Canyon oil spill

    1976: Seveso disaster

    1984: Bhopal disaster

    1986: Chernobyl nuclear disaster

    1989: Exxon Valdez oil spill

    1999: Erika disaster

    But also: global warming, air pollution, the issue of the ozone layer, the loss of biodiversity…

    The Tragedy of Commons And Sustainable Development [1968]

    In 1968 the ecologist and philosopher Garret Hardin wrote an essay entitled the tragedy of the commons. He argued that if individuals act independently, rationally and focused on pursuing their individual interests, they’d end up going against the common interests of their communities and exhaust the planet’s natural resources.

    In this way, human free access and unlimited consumption of finite resource would extinguish these same resources. Hardin believed that since man is compelled to procreated unlimitedly the Earth resources would eventually get overexploited. To his eyes, mankind needed to radically change its way of using common resources to avoid a disaster in the future – this would be the way to keep on a sustainable development track.

    Related:

    What Are Renewable Energies?

    Hydrogen VS Electric Cars: What’s More Sustainable?

    Limits To Growth And Sustainable Development [1972]

    A few years after Hardin’s essay, in 1972, Meadows et al., commissioned by the Club of Rome, ran a computer simulation that aimed to predict the consequences of what could happen in a planet with limited resources.

    The interactions between 5 different dimensions – world population growth, industrialization, pollution generation, food production, and nonrenewable resource depletion – were analyzed, considering a scenario where these variables grew exponentially and technology’s ability to increase resources was linear.

    The strongest ending scenario was that an economic and social collapse would happen by the end of the 21st century if man imposes no limits to growth. After more than 4 decades, these predictions seem to be right when it comes to pollution and it’s consequences – threatening sustainable development.

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    Is It True That We Need To Stop Having Babies To Be Truly Sustainable?

    Planet VS Economy: How Coronavirus Is Unraveling A Dysfunctional System

    1st UN Conference On The Environment And Sustainable Development [1972]

    As the world’s knowledge of global politics evolved the first historical conferences were organized. In 1972, it took place in Stockholm the UN Conference on the environment – the first big world leaders meeting organized by the UN to discuss the human impact on the environment and how it was related to economic development. One of the main goals of this gathering was to find a common outlook and common principles to inspire and guide the world’s population to preserve the “human environment”.

    Related:

    Important World Conferences On Sustainable Development

    The Human Development Index And Sustainable Development [1980]

    स्रोत : youmatter.world

    Sustainable Development MCQs with solved answers

    Our subject-matter specialists have composed these Sustainable Development MCQs based on CBSE syllabus and current practices.

    Sustainable development can be defined as an approach to the economic development of a country without compromising the quality of the environment for future generations.

    In the name of economic development, the price of environmental damage is paid in the form of land degradation, soil erosion, air and water pollution, deforestation, etc. This damage may surpass the advantages of having more quality output of goods and services.

    Given below are essential MCQs on sustainable development to analyse your understanding of the topic. The answers are also given for your reference.

    Sustainable Development MCQs

    Q1. Any adulterated elements leak into the ground, filtration, and are carried into a groundwater reservoir is known as _____________ .

    A) Land contamination

    B) Noise pollution C) Water pollution D) Air pollution

    Answer: CQ.2 South Africa is a leading exporter of which mineral?

    A) Copper B) Diamond C) Silver D) Platinum

    Answer: DQ.3 Which of the following options is correct when we only accomplish two out of three pillars of sustainable development?

    A) Economic + Environmental sustainability = Viable

    B) Social + Environmental sustainability = Bearable

    C) Social + Economic sustainability = Equitable

    D) All of the above

    Answer: DQ.4 In which year did the word ‘sustainable development’ come into existence?

    A) 1992 B) 1978 C) 1980 D) 1987

    Answer: CQ.5 In which year was the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) started by the UN General Assembly?

    A) 1995 B) 1994 C) 1993 D) 1992

    Answer: DQ.6 After mining, the huge holes left behind are used for ________ .

    A) Wastewater storage

    B) Waste and water storage

    C) Waste disposal D) Waste storage

    Answer: CQ.7 Mercury and lead are toxic elements that cause ________________ .

    A) Noise pollution B) Air pollution C) Water pollution

    D) Land contamination

    Answer: DQ.8 What is the other word for landscaping?

    A) Reduction B) Restoration C) Removing topsoil D) Restore

    Answer: BQ.9 What does a firm seek for whenever the price of the mineral remains high?

    A) New countries B) Remains the same C) New miners D) New deposits

    Answer: DQ.10 Which of the following options is not incorporated as sustainable development parameters?

    A) Gender disparity and diversity

    B) Inter and intra-generational equity

    C) Carrying capacity

    D) None of the above

    Answer: D

    Stay tuned to BYJU’S for more MCQs on statistics, question papers, sample papers, syllabus, and commerce notifications.

    Also see:

    Business Studies Mcqs

    Consumer Protection Act Mcqs

    Financial Statements Mcqs

    MCQs On Liberalisation

    MCQs On Trial Balance

    MCQs on Partnership

    स्रोत : byjus.com

    Sustainable development

    Sustainable development

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    Sustainable development requires six central capacities.[1]

    Sustainable development is an organizing principle for meeting human development goals while also sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development was defined in the 1987 Brundtland Report as "Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".[2][3] As the concept of sustainable development developed, it has shifted its focus more towards the economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations.

    Sustainable development was first institutionalized with the Rio Process initiated at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. In 2015 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Sustainable Development Goals(2015 to 2030) and explained how the goals are integrated and indivisible to achieve sustainable development at the global level.[4] The 17 goals address the global challenges, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace, and justice.

    Sustainable development is interlinked with the normative concept of sustainability. UNESCO formulated a distinction between the two concepts as follows: " is often thought of as a long-term goal (i.e. a more sustainable world), while refers to the many processes and pathways to achieve it."[5] The concept of sustainable development has been criticized in various ways. While some see it as paradoxical (or an oxymoron) and regard development as inherently unsustainable, others are disappointed in the lack of progress that has been achieved so far.[6][7] Part of the problem is that "development" itself is not consistently defined.[8]: 16

    Contents

    1 Definition

    1.1 Related concepts

    1.1.1 Sustainability

    2 Development of the concept

    3 Dimensions 4 Critique 5 Pathways 5.1 Requirements

    5.2 Environmental Characteristics of Sustainable Cities

    5.2.1 Land use changes, agriculture and food

    5.2.2 Materials and waste

    5.2.3 Biodiversity and ecosystem services

    5.2.4 Management of human consumption and impacts

    5.3 Improving on economic and social aspects

    5.3.1 Gender and leadership in sustainable development

    5.4 Barriers

    6 Sustainable Development Goals

    7 Education for sustainable development

    8 See also 9 References 10 External links

    Definition[edit]

    In 1987, the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development released the report , commonly called the Brundtland Report.[2] The report included a definition of "sustainable development" which is now widely used:[2]: Chapter 2

    Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains two key concepts within it:

    The concept of 'needs', in particular, the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and

    The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.

    — World Commission on Environment and Development, (1987)

    Related concepts[edit]

    Sustainability[edit]

    This section is an excerpt from Sustainability.[edit]

    Visual representations of sustainability and its three dimensions: Left, sustainability as three intersecting circles. Right top, a nested approach. Right bottom, literal 'pillars'.[9] The schematic with the nested ellipses emphasizes a hierarchy of the dimensions, putting "environment" as the foundation for the other two.

    Specific definitions of sustainability are difficult to agree on and have varied in the literature and over time.[10][9] The concept of sustainability can be used to guide decisions at the global, national, and individual levels (e.g. sustainable living).[11] Sustainability is commonly described as having three dimensions (also called pillars): environmental, economic, and social.[9] Many publications state that the environmental dimension (also called "planetary integrity" or "ecological integrity") is the most important,[12][13] and, in everyday usage, "sustainability" is often focused on countering major environmental problems, such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, loss of ecosystem services, land degradation, and air and water pollution.[14] Humanity is now exceeding several "planetary boundaries".[15]

    Development of the concept[edit]

    See also: Sustainability

    Sustainable development has its roots in ideas about sustainable forest management, which were developed in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries.[16][17]: 6–16  In response to a growing awareness of the depletion of timber resources in England, John Evelyn argued, in his 1662 essay , that "sowing and planting of trees had to be regarded as a national duty of every landowner, in order to stop the destructive over-exploitation of natural resources." In 1713, Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a senior mining administrator in the service of Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony published , a 400-page work on forestry. Building upon the ideas of Evelyn and French minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, von Carlowitz developed the concept of managing forests for sustained yield.[16] His work influenced others, including Alexander von Humboldt and Georg Ludwig Hartig, eventually leading to the development of the science of forestry. This, in turn, influenced people like Gifford Pinchot, the first head of the US Forest Service, whose approach to forest management was driven by the idea of wise use of resources, and Aldo Leopold whose land ethic was influential in the development of the environmental movement in the 1960s.[16][17]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

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