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    there are many books that involve the topic of peace. what famous novel containing political and philosophical discussions on the subject was written by the russian author, leo tolstoy?

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    Leo Tolstoy

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    Leo Tolstoy

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    "Tolstoy" and "Lev Tolstoy" redirect here. For other uses, see Tolstoy (disambiguation) and Lev Tolstoy (disambiguation).

    In this name that follows Eastern Slavic naming conventions, the patronymic is and the family name is .

    Leo Tolstoy

    Tolstoy on 23 May 1908 at Yasnaya Polyana,[1] Lithograph print by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

    Native name

    Лев Николаевич Толстой

    Born 9 September 1828

    Yasnaya Polyana, Tula Governorate, Russian Empire

    Died 20 November 1910 (aged 82)

    Astapovo, Ryazan Governorate, Russian Empire

    Resting place Yasnaya Polyana, Tula

    Occupation Novelist, short story writer, playwright, essayist

    Language Russian Period 1847–1910

    Literary movement Realism

    Notable works

    Spouse Sophia Behrs ​(m. 1862)​

    Children 13 Relatives

    Nikolay Tolstoy (father)

    Mariya Tolstaya (mother)

    Signature Leo Tolstoy's voice 2:40 recorded 1908

    Portrait of Leo Tolstoy by Ivan Kramskoi, 1873

    Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy[note 1] (/ˈtoʊlstɔɪ, ˈtɒl-/;[2] Russian: Лев Николаевич Толстой,[note 2] IPA: [ˈlʲef nʲɪkɐˈla(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ tɐlˈstoj] (listen); 9 September [O.S. 28 August] 1828 – 20 November [O.S. 7 November] 1910), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time.[3] He received nominations for the Nobel Prize in Literature every year from 1902 to 1906 and for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, 1902, and 1909; the fact that he never won is a major controversy.[4][5][6][7]

    Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828,[3] Tolstoy's notable works include the novels (1869) and (1878),[8] often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction.[3] He first achieved literary acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, , , and (1852–1856), and (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War. His fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as (1886), (1859), "After the Ball" (1911), and (1912). He also wrote plays and numerous philosophical essays.

    In the 1870s, Tolstoy experienced a profound moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as an equally profound spiritual awakening, as outlined in his non-fiction work (1882). His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist.[3] His ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as (1894), had a profound impact on such pivotal 20th-century figures as Mahatma Gandhi[9] and Martin Luther King Jr.[10] He also became a dedicated advocate of Georgism, the economic philosophy of Henry George, which he incorporated into his writing, particularly (1899).

    Contents

    1 Origins 2 Life and career 3 Personal life

    4 Novels and fictional works

    5 Critical appraisal by other authors

    6 Religious and political beliefs

    7 Death 8 Legacy

    8.1 In Soviet Russia

    8.2 Influence 8.3 In films 9 Bibliography 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

    Origins

    Main article: Tolstoy family

    The Tolstoys were a well-known family of old Russian nobility who traced their ancestry to a mythical nobleman named Indris described by Pyotr Tolstoy as arriving "from Nemec, from the lands of Caesar" to Chernigov in 1353 along with his two sons Litvinos (or Litvonis) and Zimonten (or Zigmont) and a druzhina of 3000 people.[11][12] While the word "Nemec" has been long used to describe Germans only, at that time it was applied to any foreigner who didn't speak Russian (from the word meaning ).[13] Indris was then converted to Eastern Orthodoxy, under the name of Leonty, and his sons as Konstantin and Feodor. Konstantin's grandson Andrei Kharitonovich was nicknamed Tolstiy (translated as ) by Vasily II of Moscow after he moved from Chernigov to Moscow.[11][12]

    Because of the pagan names and the fact that Chernigov at the time was ruled by Demetrius I Starshy, some researchers concluded that they were Lithuanians who arrived from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[11][14][15] At the same time, no mention of Indris was ever found in the 14th-to-16th-century documents, while the Chernigov Chronicles used by Pyotr Tolstoy as a reference were lost.[11] The first documented members of the Tolstoy family also lived during the 17th century, thus Pyotr Tolstoy himself is generally considered the founder of the noble house, being granted the title of count by Peter the Great.[16][17]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Leo Tolstoy

    Russian author Leo Tolstoy wrote the acclaimed novels 'War and Peace,' 'Anna Karenina' and 'The Death of Ivan Ilyich,' and ranks among the world's top writers.

    Leo Tolstoy

    Biography (1828–1910) JAN 22, 2016 COMMENT

    Russian author Leo Tolstoy wrote the acclaimed novels 'War and Peace,' 'Anna Karenina' and 'The Death of Ivan Ilyich,' and ranks among the world's top writers.

    Who Was Leo Tolstoy?

    In the 1860s, Russian author Leo Tolstoy wrote his first great novel, War and Peace. In 1873, Tolstoy set to work on the second of his best-known novels, Anna Karenina. He continued to write fiction throughout the 1880s and 1890s. One of his most successful later works was The Death of Ivan Ilyich.

    Early Life

    On September 9, 1828, writer Leo Tolstoy was born at his family's estate, Yasnaya Polyana, in the Tula Province of Russia. He was the youngest of four boys. When Tolstoy's mother died in 1830, his father's cousin took over caring for the children. When their father, Count Nikolay Tolstoy, died just seven years later, their aunt was appointed their legal guardian. When the aunt passed away, Tolstoy and his siblings moved in with a second aunt, in Kazan, Russia. Although Tolstoy experienced a lot of loss at an early age, he would later idealize his childhood memories in his writing.

    Tolstoy received his primary education at home, at the hands of French and German tutors. In 1843, he enrolled in an Oriental languages program at the University of Kazan. There, Tolstoy failed to excel as a student. His low grades forced him to transfer to an easier law program. Prone to partying in excess, Tolstoy ultimately left the University of Kazan in 1847, without a degree. He returned to his parents' estate, where he made a go at becoming a farmer. He attempted to lead the serfs, or farmhands, in their work, but he was too often absent on social visits to Tula and Moscow. His stab at becoming the perfect farmer soon proved to be a failure. He did, however, succeed in pouring his energies into keeping a journal — the beginning of a lifelong habit that would inspire much of his fiction.

    As Tolstoy was flailing on the farm, his older brother, Nikolay, came to visit while on military leave. Nikolay convinced Tolstoy to join the Army as a junker, south in the Caucasus Mountains, where Nikolay himself was stationed. Following his stint as a junker, Tolstoy transferred to Sevastopol in Ukraine in November 1854, where he fought in the Crimean War through August 1855.

    Early Works

    During quiet periods while Tolstoy was a junker in the Army, he worked on an autobiographical story called Childhood. In it, he wrote of his fondest childhood memories. In 1852, Tolstoy submitted the sketch to The Contemporary, the most popular journal of the time. The story was eagerly accepted and became Tolstoy's very first published work.

    After completing Childhood, Tolstoy started writing about his day-to-day life at the Army outpost in the Caucasus. However, he did not complete the work, entitled The Cossacks, until 1862, after he had already left the Army.

    2 GALLERY 2 IMAGES

    Tolstoy still managed to continue writing while at battle during the Crimean War. During that time, he composed Boyhood (1854), a sequel to Childhood, the second book in what was to become Tolstoy's autobiographical trilogy. In the midst of the Crimean War, Tolstoy also expressed his views on the striking contradictions of war through a three-part series, Sevastopol Tales. In the second Sevastopol Tales book, Tolstoy experimented with a relatively new writing technique: Part of the story is presented in the form of a soldier's stream of consciousness.

    Once the Crimean War ended and Tolstoy left the Army, he returned to Russia. Back home, the burgeoning author found himself in high demand on the St. Petersburg literary scene. Stubborn and arrogant, Tolstoy refused to ally himself with any particular intellectual school of thought. Declaring himself an anarchist, he made off to Paris in 1857. Once there, he gambled away all of his money and was forced to return home to Russia. He also managed to publish Youth, the third part of his autobiographical trilogy, in 1857.

    Back in Russia in 1862, Tolstoy produced the first of a 12 issue-installment of the journal Yasnaya Polyana, marrying a doctor's daughter named Sofya Andreyevna Bers that same year.

    Books

    'War and Peace'

    Residing at Yasnaya Polyana with his wife and children, Tolstoy spent the better part of the 1860s toiling over his first great novel, War and Peace. A portion of the novel was first published in the Russian Messenger in 1865, under the title "The Year 1805." By 1868, he had released three more chapters and a year later, the novel was complete. Both critics and the public were buzzing about the novel's historical accounts of the Napoleonic Wars, combined with its thoughtful development of realistic yet fictional characters. The novel also uniquely incorporated three long essays satirizing the laws of history. Among the ideas that Tolstoy extols in War and Peace is the belief that the quality and meaning of one's life is mainly derived from his day-to-day activities.

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    स्रोत : www.biography.com

    Leo Tolstoy: Biography, Quotes, Famous Works

    Leo Tolstoy: ✓ Biography ✓ Books ✓ Novels ✓ Themes ✓ Quotes ✓ Writing Style ✓ Famous Works ✓ Facts ✓ StudySmarter Original

    Leo Tolstoy

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) was a Russian author considered to be one of the greatest writers of all time. A writer of Realism, Tolstoy’s novels Anna Karenina (1868) and War and Peace (1869) have stood the test of time and remain two of the most famous works of Russian literature. In his personal life, Tolstoy was a pacifist, education advocate, and Christian anarchist. Tolstoy’s legacy extends far beyond just the literary sphere, but his written contributions remain some of the most important works in literary history.

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    Leo Tolstoy Biography

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    Portrait of Leo Tolstoy (1887) by Ilya Repin, pixabay

    Leo Tolstoy was born Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy in 1828 at Yasnaya Polyana near Tula, Russia. He grew up in an aristocratic Russian family with four siblings. By the time Tolstoy turned 10, both of his parents had passed away. He attended a Russian university but did not finish his degree. He and his brother fought in the Crimean war (1853-1856); Tolstoy’s horror at what he witnessed during the war would lead to a lifelong passion for nonviolence.

    Following his release from the army, Tolstoy traveled around Europe. During his travels, he adopted the moral positions that would guide his life’s work and his writing—nonviolence, the importance of education, and a disdain for the aristocracy.

    Upon his return to Russia, Tolstoy married Sofya Andreyevena Bers; the couple had 13 children, three of whom died in infancy. In the period after he married Sofya (commonly referred to by the Russian diminutive, Sonya) and raised his children, Tolstoy wrote War and Peace and Anna Karenina, his two masterpieces.

    Did you know that Sonya hand-wrote the entire manuscript of War and Peace eight times? She was tasked with copying the new version of the novel each time Tolstoy revised it. When it was first published it had about 1,200 pages—that's almost 10,000 handwritten pages.

    In his later years, Tolstoy became more interested in morality and religion. He rejected many of his earlier works, including War and Peace and Anna Karenina, as being unrealistic, and he wrote treatises on religion and politics. He was particularly interested in nonviolence and pacificism, which he derived from Christian teachings.

    Tolstoy was opposed to private land ownership and espoused the economic beliefs of Georgism. He was a strong believer in education and founded 13 schools where he grew up, specifically for the children of Russian peasants.

    Toward the end of his life, Tolstoy was dedicated to giving away his wealth and the money he earned from his books. He sought to totally reject the aristocratic way of life in Russia. He worked the fields of his estate alongside Russian peasants and volunteered to help feed those in need during the famine of 1891.

    In an effort to reject monetary gains, Tolstoy gave up the copyright to many of the famous novels that he no longer felt represented his beliefs. His approach to money often caused disagreements with his wife Sonya, with whom he was often at odds.

    How did Tolstoy die?

    Tolstoy died of pneumonia at a train station in 1910. He was 82 at the time of his death. He had left home, as he and his wife were arguing over his religious and political beliefs. Following his death, the procession of his funeral cavalcade was attended by thousands of Russian peasants along the streets.

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    Famous Works by Leo Tolstoy

    Throughout his lifetime, Tolstoy wrote numerous books, novellas, short stories, and essays. His extensive bibliography shows Tolstoy’s own philosophical transformations over time.

    Novels & Books by Leo Tolstoy

    Tolstoy wrote three fictional novels during his career. Each represents a different stage in his life and has cemented his place in the literary halls of fame.

    War and Peace (1869)

    Originally published serially, and then together in 1869, War and Peace is considered one of Tolstoy’s crowning literary achievements. This Realist novel chronicles the lives of five different Russian aristocratic families during the Napoleonic Wars. Tolstoy conducted extensive historical research to accurately portray the events. He included philosophical essays in the book, in addition to the fictional narratives.

    स्रोत : www.studysmarter.co.uk

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