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    those species that have a large contribution towards creating and maintaining habitats that support other species

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    Keystone species in an ecosystem are those:

    Keystone species of an ecosystem is a species that exerts an important regulatory effect on other species in the community, i.e. contributes to ecosystems properties. It maintains higher species diversity in a community by reducing the densities of strong competitors.

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    Keystone species in an ecosystem are those:

    Updated On: 27-06-2022

    Video Solution: Keystone species in an ecosystem are those:

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    Text Solution Open Answer in App A

    are present in maximum number

    B are most frequent C

    attain a large biomass

    D

    contribute to major ecosystem functions

    Answer

    The correct Answer is D

    Solution

    Keystone species of an ecosystem is a species that exerts an important regulatory effect on other species in the community, i.e. contributes to ecosystems properties. It maintains higher species diversity in a community by reducing the densities of strong competitors.

    Answer

    Step by step video solution for [object Object] by Biology experts to help you in doubts & scoring excellent marks in Class 12 exams.

    Question Details till 07/10/2022

    Question

    Keystone species in an ecosystem are those:

    Chapter Name Organisms And PopulationSubject Biology (more Questions)Class 12thType of Answer VideoQuestion Language

    In Video - English In Text - English

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    hello students the question is keystone species in an ecosystem are those species which have their options given here the first option says that these species are present in maximum number so this is not the right option these keystone species is a pain that the approximate present in maximum number of their most frequent this is also wrong and third one is 3018 a large Biomass Biomass is also connected to the number so this is also the wrong option because in case the number of the diversity of the population density is more in that case only the Biomass will be more so these three other wrong options while the right option for this question is that ki species are those species which contribute to the ecosystem functions now without a key species in the ecosystem this the ecosystem functions will not be able to be there will not be able to

    functions because they drive such major functions in the ecosystem that the ecosystem might even cease to exist without them so these two species in is the are removed from a habitat IT results in dramatic change in the habitat there so important that the removal can result in a lot of change the habitat and it affects the other species to an extent that other species will get extinct so if ki species are removed the other species will have a very adverse effect on their habitat are well are there the type species affect the structure Sokhi species are the ones which affect the structure as well as function of the ecosystem and plants in the animals residing in that

    ecosystem will be adversely affected on removal of the key pc so what are the examples which we can take is most of the ki species are basically into the Prey Predator relationship so it is one of the common examples of the keystone species the Predator that attacked a hobby for species prevent the animals from depleting the plant species from the ecosystem so set pieces are called as keystone species in the absence of these the population of herbivores will increase drastically and they would destroy all the plant species in that ecosystem so some of the example another example of this can be honey bees in the pollinators so I am is are the major party ki jansar to pollinator but increase honey bees are removed from the ecosystem when is a plant should also become extinct because Honey Bee is the major pollinator here and pollination process should not take rest of the class will get into the endangered

    list so here we see that the fourth option option number 4 is a right option for this question this is all about this query thank you

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    स्रोत : www.doubtnut.com

    Role of Keystone Species in an Ecosystem

    A keystone species helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether.

    RESOURCE LIBRARY

    ARTICLE

    Role of Keystone Species in an Ecosystem

    A keystone species helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether.

    GRADES 3 - 12 SUBJECTS

    Biology, Earth Science, Ecology

    PHOTOGRAPH

    Ochre Sea Star

    A keystone species is an organism that helps define an entire ecosystem. By keeping populations of mussels and barnacles in check, this sea star helps ensure healthy populations of seaweeds and the communities that feed on them—sea urchins, sea snails, limpets, and bivalves. Pisaster ochraceus sea stars like this one were the first animals to be identified as keystone species.

    PHOTOGRAPH BY PAUL NICKLEN, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC

    1/9 Leveled by Selected text level

    A keystone species is an organism that helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether.

    Keystone species have low functional redundancy. This means that if the species were to disappear from the ecosystem, no other species would be able to fill its ecological niche. The ecosystem would be forced to radically change, allowing new and possibly invasive species to populate the habitat.

    Any organism, from plants to fungi, may be a keystone species; they are not always the largest or most abundant species in an ecosystem. However, almost all examples of keystone species are animals that have a huge influence on food webs. The way these animals influence food webs varies from habitat to habitat.

    Carnivores, Herbivores, and Mutualists

    Predators

    A keystone species is often, but not always, a predator. Just a few predators can control the distribution and population of large numbers of prey species.

    The entire concept of keystone species was founded on research surrounding the influence of a marine predator on its environment. American zoology professor Robert T. Paine's research showed that removing a single species, the Pisaster ochraceus sea star, from a tidal plain on Tatoosh Island in the U.S. state of Washington, had a huge effect on the ecosystem. Pisaster ochraceus, commonly known as purple sea stars, are a major predator of mussels and barnacles on Tatoosh Island. With the sea stars gone, mussels took over the area and crowded out other species, including benthic algae that supported communities of sea snails, limpets, and bivalves. Lacking a keystone species, the tidal plain’s biodiversity was cut in half within a year.

    Another example of a predator acting as a keystone species is the presence of gray wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) is an enormous and diverse temperate ecosystem stretching across the boundaries of the U.S. states of Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho. The GYE includes active geothermal basins, mountains, forests, meadows, and freshwater habitats.

    The elk, bison, rabbit, and bird species in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are at least partly controlled by the presence of wolves. The feeding behavior of these prey species, as well as where they choose to make their nests and burrows, are largely a reaction to wolf activity. Scavenger species, such as vultures, are also controlled by the wolf activity.

    When the U.S. government designated land for Yellowstone National Park in the late 19th century, hundreds of wolves roamed the GYE, preying primarily on abundant herds of elk and bison. Fearing the wolves’ impact on those herds, as well as local livestock, governments at the local, state, and federal level worked to eradicate wolves from the GYE. The last remaining wolf pups in Yellowstone were killed in 1924.

    This started a top-down trophic cascade in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. A trophic cascade describes changes in an ecosystem due to the addition or removal of a predator. A top-down trophic cascade describes changes that result from the removal of an ecosystem’s top predator. (A bottom-up trophic cascade describes changes that result from the removal of a producer or primary consumer.)

    Lacking an apex predator, elk populations in Yellowstone exploded. Elk herds competed for food resources, and plants such as grasses, sedges, and reeds did not have time or space to grow. Overgrazing influenced the populations of other species, such as fish, beaver, and songbirds. These animals rely on plants and their products—roots, flowers, wood, seeds—for survival.

    The physical geography of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem was also impacted by the loss of wolves and subsequent elk overgrazing. Stream banks eroded as wetland plants failed to anchor valuable soil and sediments. Lake and river temperatures increased as trees and shrubs failed to provide shaded areas.

    Starting in the 1990s, the U.S. government began reintroducing wolves to the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The results have been noteworthy. Elk populations have shrunk, willow heights have increased, and beaver and songbird populations have recovered.

    Herbivores

    Herbivores can also be keystone species. Their consumption of plants helps control the physical and biological aspects of an ecosystem.

    स्रोत : education.nationalgeographic.org

    ESS Topic 3.4: Conservation of Biodiversity

    Life has existed on Earth for over 3.5 billion years. Over 95% of the species that ever existed have gone extinct. So why should we be concerned about current extinction rates and conserving...

    TOPIC 3.4: CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY

    Image from http://en.wikipedia.org

    Life has existed on Earth for over 3.5 billion years. Over 95% of the species that ever existed have gone extinct. So why should we be concerned about current extinction rates and conserving biodiversity?

    It has become clear that biodiversity is the cornerstone of our existence on Earth. It is also important to conserve biodiversity for the sake of our own curiosity and aesthetic appreciation.

    In this unit you will consider arguments for preserving species and habitats based on ethical, aesthetic, genetic resources and commercial considerations. You will also look at the activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations in preserving and restoring ecosystems. This unit is a minimum of 4 hours.

    Significant Ideas:

    The impact of losing biodiversity drives conservation efforts.

    The variety of arguments given for the conservation of biodiversity will depend on EVSs.

    There are various approaches to the conservation of biodiversity, each with associated strengths and limitations

    Big Questions:

    To what extent have the solutions emerging from this topic been directed at preventing environmental impacts, limiting the extent of the environmental impacts, or restoring systems in which environmental impacts have already occurred?

    What value systems can you identify at play in the causes and approaches to resolving the issues addressed in this topic?

    How does your own value system compare with others you have encountered in the context of issues raised in this topic?

    In what ways might the solutions explored in this topic alter your predictions for the state of human societies and the biosphere some decades from now?

    How do different conservation measures (e.g. in situ and ex situ) prevent environmental impacts, limit the extent of the environmental impacts, or restore systems in which environmental impacts have already occurred?

    How would a technocentric view of biodiversity differ from an ecocentric one? Ho do different EVSs affect approaches to conservation?

    If you are from a MEDC, how would your EVS differ from that of someone from a LEDC, or from someone who relies on the preservation of natural ecosystems for survival?

    Do you think that the conservation measures being taken today will be sufficient of preserve the Earth's biodiversity for the future?

    Knowledge & Understanding:3.4.U1 Arguments about species and habitat preservation can be based on aesthetic, ecological, economic, ethical and social justifications.

    [Economic arguments for preservation often involve valuation of ecotourism, of the genetic resource, and commercial considerations of the natural capital. Ecological reasons may be related to the ecosystem. Ethical arguments are very broad, and can include the intrinsic value of the species or the utilitarian value.]​​

    image from epa.gov

    You should appreciate arguments based on ethical, aesthetic, genetic resource and commercial (including opportunity cost) considerations. You should also appreciate life support and ecosystem-support functions.

    Habitat conservation for wild species is one of the most important issues facing the environment today — both in the ocean and on land. As human populations increase, land use increases, and wild species have smaller spaces to call home. More than half of Earth's terrestrial surface has been altered due to human activity, resulting in drastic deforestation, erosion and loss of topsoil, biodiversity loss, and extinction. Species cannot survive outside of their natural habitat without human intervention, such as the habitats found in a zoo or aquarium, for example. Preserving habitats is essential to preserving biodiversity.

    Ecological

    Life-support service value e.g. stable climate

    Some species are keystone species, which if removed from the ecosystem can lead to many other species becoming extinct

    Economic

    Species and habitat are direct natural capital, e.g. ecotourism

    Unknown value in the potential of the species for agriculture, medicine, genetic diversity and biotechnology

    Aesthetic

    Nature can provide inspiration for all kinds of artworks

    Ethical

    The idea of good stewardship (looking after the environment) and sustainable development for the good of future generations

    Intrinsic value of the environment or right of individuals or species to exist

    The values of biodiversity can be classified as either direct values or indirect values

    Direct values - can be (relatively) easily calculated

    goods harvested & destroyed for consumption (eating) or sale in a market

    generally physical commodities of some sort

    private goods - value accrues to the owner of the resource

    Examples:

    food sources (‘heirloom varieties’ of many crops, i.e. corn/maize)

    natural products (medicines, textiles, fertilizers, pesticides, etc

    Indirect values - more difficult to calculate

    stabilize ecosystems (negative feedback cycles)

    स्रोत : www.mrgscience.com

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