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    Waste Disposal Methods

    Learn the definition and different methods of Waste Disposal. Explore the various problems and solutions related to waste management only @BYJU'S.

    BiologyBiology ArticleWaste Disposal

    Waste Disposal


    We observe heaps of garbage lying along the roads while passing through a highway. Open dumping is the most common method of waste disposal in India.

    The trash heaps are usually left open to the environment and the elements. These seldom have a sparse covering which can often attract pests or vermin.

    Sometimes, these dumps are subjected to open burning, which can release toxic fumes and smokes. There have also been instances where enough heat has been generated to trigger a spontaneous combustion

    Sometimes, wastes are illegally dumped into rivers and canals or used to fill land depressions without proper consultations. These practices cause a lot of problems in the long run. These can range from the degradation of the soil quality to leaching toxic chemicals into underground water sources. Therefore, to prevent such scenarios,  proper waste disposal methods should be adopted.

    Also Read: Garbage in Garbage out

    Methods of Waste Disposal

    Garbage accumulation has never been much of a concern in the past, but due to globalization and industrialization, there is a need for a more efficient waste disposal method. Following are some of the methods that are used today.


    In this process, the waste that cannot be reused or recycled are separated out and spread as a thin layer in low-lying areas across a city. A layer of soil is added after each layer of garbage. However, once this process is complete, the area is declared unfit for construction of buildings for the next 20 years. Instead, it can only be used as a playground or a park.


    Incineration is the process of controlled combustion of garbage to reduce it to incombustible matter such as ash and waste gas. The exhaust gases from this process may be toxic, hence it is treated before being released into the environment. This process reduces the volume of waste by 90 per cent and is considered as one of the most hygienic methods of waste disposal. In some cases, the heat generated is used to produce electricity. However, some consider this process, not quite environmentally friendly due to the generation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

    Waste Compaction

    The waste materials such as cans and plastic bottles are compacted into blocks and sent for recycling. This process prevents the oxidation of metals and reduces airspace need, thus making transportation and positioning easy.

    Biogas Generation

    Biodegradable waste, such as food items, animal waste or organic industrial waste from food packaging industries are sent to bio-degradation plants. In bio-degradation plants, they are converted to biogas by degradation with the help of bacteria, fungi, or other microbes. Here, the organic matter serves as food for the micro-organisms. The degradation can happen aerobically (with oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen). Biogas is generated as a result of this process, which is used as fuel, and the residue is used as manure.


    All organic materials decompose with time. Food scraps, yard waste, etc., make up for one of the major organic wastes we throw every day. The process of composting starts with these organic wastes being buried under layers of soil and then, are left to decay under the action of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.

    This results in the formation of nutrient-rich manure. Also, this process ensures that the nutrients are replenished in the soil. Besides enriching the soil, composting also increases the water retention capacity. In agriculture, it is the best alternative to chemical fertilizers.


    Vermicomposting is the process of using worms for the degradation of organic matter into nutrient-rich manure. Worms consume and digest the organic matter. The by-products of digestion which are excreted out by the worms make the soil nutrient-rich, thus enhancing the growth of bacteria and fungi. It is also far more effective than traditional composting.

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    Further Reading:

    What is Decomposition?


    Frequently Asked Questions

    What does waste disposal mean?

    Waste disposal is the method that is employed to destroy or recycle unused, old or unwanted domestic, agricultural, medical or industrial waste.

    Name a few methods of waste disposal.

    There are many methods of waste disposal, some of which are more effective than others. These include:

    Landfill Incineration Waste compaction Composting Vermicomposting

    How is the solid waste disposed of?

    Solid waste is typically disposed of by the process of incineration – where the waste materials are heated to very high temperatures and reduced to ash, flue gas and heat.

    Test your knowledge on Waste Disposal

    Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin!

    स्रोत : byjus.com

    Waste disposal methods

    In general, waste should undergo material recycling or thermal treatment. If this is not possible for technical reasons, or it is not economically viable, the waste is deposited in a landfill following suitable treatment.

    Waste disposal methods


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    Waste disposal methods

    In general, waste should undergo material recycling or thermal treatment. If this is not possible for technical reasons, or it is not economically viable, the waste is deposited in a landfill following suitable treatment.

    The standard waste disposal methods used in Switzerland are defined and described below:


    Recycling refers to both the direct reuse of used products (e.g. used clothing and functioning parts removed from used vehicles) and material recycling, that is the recovery of raw materials from waste (e.g. production of new glass from fragments, the melting of scrap iron and the production of recycled building materials from construction waste). Downcycling refers to the transformation of waste to materials of lower quality than the initially used material.



    Combustible waste from households and waste wood that is not suitable for recycling undergo thermal treatment in waste incineration plants or waste wood furnaces. The heat released in the process is used to generate electricity and heat buildings. Waste with a high calorific value and low level of pollutant contamination can be used in industrial plants, e.g. cement plants, as an alternative to fossil fuels. Waste that is contaminated with organic pollutants undergoes separate thermal treatment (e.g. in hazardous waste incineration plants). Incinerators must have a flue gas treatment system. The requirements for flue gas treatment and the incineration system are based on the nature of the waste.

    Specialised waste disposal companies treat the waste in accordance with the requirements of the incineration plant. This guarantees that the fuel will be of a high quality and reduces the accident risk. The companies ensure, for example, that no undesirable reactions occur when liquids are mixed. Waste materials that are used as substitute fuels in cement plants must be crushed in advance and set at a constant calorific value.

    Cement plants

    Other thermal treatment plants

    Chemical-physical and biological treatment

    The objective of both chemical-physical and biological treatment is to enable the removal of pollutants from waste or its safe landfilling. Wastewater and polluted excavated material are typical of the types of waste that are managed in this way. Following chemical-physical treatment, the pollutants can be disposed of in concentrated form in facilities suitable for this purpose.

    Chemical-physical and biological treatment


    Residues from waste incineration or waste that is not suitable for material recycling or thermal treatment are deposited in landfills that are compliant with the legal requirements. If the waste does not fulfil the requirements for landfilling, it must be pre-treated.


    Collection and logistics

    The waste management sector involves many different specialised actors. Their tasks include the collection of waste at source (industry, commerce and households) in suitable transport containers, its intermediate storage and handover to waste disposal operations. The treatment of waste is often based on a cascade of specialised plants. In all cases, smooth logistics are a precondition for the efficient management of waste. In the case of hazardous waste, in accordance with the Ordinance on Movements of Waste, the handover must be documented.

    Further information

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    Last modification 11.07.2019

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    Waste management

    Waste management

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    For the company, see Waste Management (corporation). For other uses, see Waste management (disambiguation).

    "Waste disposal" redirects here. For the kitchen device, see Garbage disposal unit.

    Not to be confused with Sanitary engineering.


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    A specialized trash collection truck providing regular municipal trash collection in a neighborhood in Stockholm, Sweden

    Waste pickers burning e-waste in Agbogbloshie, a site near Accra in Ghana that processes large volumes of international electronic waste. The pickers burn the plastics off of materials, and collect the metals for recycling. However this process exposes pickers and their local communities to toxic fumes.

    Containers for consumer waste collection at the Gdańsk University of Technology

    A recycling and waste-to-energy plant for waste that is not exported

    Waste management or waste disposal includes the processes and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.[1] This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process and waste-related laws, technologies, economic mechanisms.

    Waste can be solid, liquid, or gases and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological, household, municipal, organic, biomedical, radioactive wastes. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health.[2] Health issues are associated throughout the entire process of waste management. Health issues can also arise indirectly or directly: directly through the handling of solid waste, and indirectly through the consumption of water, soil and food. Waste is produced by[3] human activity, for example, the extraction and processing of raw materials.[4] Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, the environment, planetary resources and aesthetics.

    The aim of waste management is to reduce the dangerous effects of such waste on the environment and human health. A big part of waste management deals with municipal solid waste, which is created by industrial, commercial, and household activity.

    Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural areas), and residential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches.[5]

    Proper management of waste is important for building sustainable and liveable cities, but it remains a challenge for many developing countries and cities. A report found that effective waste management is relatively expensive, usually comprising 20%–50% of municipal budgets. Operating this essential municipal service requires integrated systems that are efficient, sustainable, and socially supported.[6] A large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the bulk of the waste that is created by household, industrial, and commercial activity.[7] According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), municipal solid waste is expected to reach approximately 3.4 Gt by 2050; however, policies and lawmaking can reduce the amount of waste produced in different areas and cities of the world.[8] Measures of waste management include measures for integrated techno-economic mechanisms[9] of a circular economy, effective disposal facilities, export and import control[10][11] and optimal sustainable design of products that are produced.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

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