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    What causes bone loss? : MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

    Osteoporosis, or weak bones, is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of calcified bone

    What causes bone loss?

    Osteoporosis, or weak bones, is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of calcified bone tissue that is in your bones.

    A diagnosis of osteoporosis means you are at risk for bone fractures even with everyday activities or minor accidents or falls.

    Your Changing Bones

    Aging and Bone Loss

    Your Lifestyle and Bone Loss

    Medical Disorders and Bone Loss

    What's Next?

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    Review Date 4/29/2022

    Your Changing Bones Aging and Bone Loss Your Lifestyle and Bone Loss Medical Disorders and Bone Loss What's Next? Alternative Names Images References Review Date 4/29/2022 Related MedlinePlus Health Topics

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    स्रोत : medlineplus.gov

    Osteoporosis Overview

    Osteoporosis Overview

    Osteoporosis Overview Overview of Osteoporosis

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease that develops when bone mineral density and bone mass decreases, or when the quality or structure of bone changes. This can lead to a decrease in bone strength that can increase the risk of fractures (broken bones).

    Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease because you typically do not have symptoms, and you may not even know you have the disease until you break a bone. Osteoporosis is the major cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and in older men. Fractures can occur in any bone but happen most often in bones of the hip, vertebrae in the spine, and wrist.

    However, you can take steps to help prevent the disease and fractures by:

    Staying physically active by participating in weight-bearing exercises such as walking.

    Drinking alcohol in moderation.

    Quitting smoking, or not starting if you don’t smoke.

    Taking your medications, if prescribed, which can help prevent fractures in people who have osteoporosis.

    Eating a nutritious diet rich in calcium and vitamin D to help maintain good bone health.

    Who Gets Osteoporosis?

    Osteoporosis affects women and men of all races and ethnic groups. Osteoporosis can occur at any age, although the risk for developing the disease increases as you get older. For many women, the disease begins to develop  a year or two before menopause. Other factors to consider include:

    Osteoporosis is most common in non-Hispanic white women and Asian women.

    African American and Hispanic women have a lower risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are still at significant risk.

    Among men, osteoporosis is more common in non-Hispanic whites.

    Certain medications, such as some cancer medications and glucocorticoid steroids, may increase the risk of developing osteoporosis.

    Because more women get osteoporosis than men, many men think they are not at risk for the disease. However, both older men and women from all backgrounds are at risk for osteoporosis.

    Some children and teens develop a rare form of idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis. Doctors do not know the cause; however, most children recover without treatment.

    Symptoms of Osteoporosis

    Osteoporosis is called a “silent” disease” because there are typically no symptoms until a bone is broken or one or more vertebrae collapse (fracture). Symptoms of vertebral fracture include severe back pain, loss of height, or spine malformations such as a stooped or hunched posture (kyphosis).

    Bones affected by osteoporosis may become so fragile that fractures occur spontaneously or as the result of:

    Minor falls, such as a fall from standing height that would not normally cause a break in a healthy bone.

    Normal stresses such as bending, lifting, or even coughing.

    Causes of Osteoporosis

    Osteoporosis occurs when too much bone mass is lost and changes occur in the structure of bone tissue. Certain risk factors may lead to the development of osteoporosis or can increase the likelihood that you will develop the disease.

    Many people with osteoporosis have several risk factors, but others who develop osteoporosis may not have any specific risk factors. There are some risk factors that you cannot change, and others that you may be able to change. However, by understanding these factors, you may be able to prevent the disease and fractures.

    Factors that may increase your risk for osteoporosis include:

    Sex. Your chances of developing osteoporosis are greater if you are a woman. Women have lower peak bone mass and smaller bones than men. However, men are still at risk, especially after the age of 70.Age. As you age, bone loss happens more quickly, and new bone growth is slower. Over time, your bones can weaken and your risk for osteoporosis increases.Body size. Slender, thin-boned women and men are at greater risk to develop osteoporosis because they have less bone to lose compared to larger boned women and men.Race. White and Asian women are at highest risk. African American and Mexican American women have a lower risk. White men are at higher risk than African American and Mexican American men.Family history. Researchers are finding that your risk for osteoporosis and fractures may increase if one of your parents has a history of osteoporosis or hip fracture.Changes to hormones. Low levels of certain hormones can increase your chances of developing osteoporosis. For example:

    Low estrogen levels in women after menopause.

    Low levels of estrogen from the abnormal absence of menstrual periods in premenopausal women due to hormone disorders or extreme levels of physical activity.

    Low levels of testosterone in men. Men with conditions that cause low testosterone are at risk for osteoporosis. However, the gradual decrease of testosterone with aging is probably not a major reason for loss of bone.

    Diet. Beginning in childhood and into old age, a diet low in calcium and vitamin D can increase your risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Excessive dieting or poor protein intake may increase your risk for bone loss and osteoporosis.Other medical conditions. Some medical conditions that you may be able to treat or manage can increase the risk of osteoporosis, such as other endocrine and hormonal diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, certain types of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and anorexia nervosa.

    स्रोत : www.bones.nih.gov

    Osteoporosis: Symptoms, Causes, Tests & Treatment

    Learn about osteoporosis, which causes weak bones that are more prone to breaking. It is often found in women. You may not know you have it, but it can be treated and prevented.

    Osteoporosis

    Osteoporosis weakens bones, making them more susceptible to sudden and unexpected fractures. The disease often progresses without any symptoms or pain, and is not found until bones fracture. You can take steps to prevent this disease, and treatments do exist.

    OVERVIEW

    What is osteoporosis?

    The word ‘osteoporosis’ means ‘porous bone.’ It is a disease that weakens bones, and if you have it, you are at a greater risk for sudden and unexpected bone fractures. Osteoporosis means that you have less bone mass and strength. The disease often develops without any symptoms or pain, and it is usually not discovered until the weakened bones cause painful fractures. Most of these are fractures of the hip, wrist and spine.

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    Who gets osteoporosis?

    About 200 million people are estimated to have osteoporosis throughout the world. In the U.S., the figure is about 54 million people. Although osteoporosis occurs in both men and women, women are four times more likely to develop the disease than men. There are currently about two million men in the U.S. who have osteoporosis and some 12 million more who are at risk of developing the condition.

    After age 50, one in two women and one in four men will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetimes. Another 30% have low bone density that puts them at risk of developing osteoporosis. This condition is called osteopenia.

    Osteoporosis is responsible for more than two million fractures each year, and this number continues to grow. There are steps you can take to prevent osteoporosis from ever occurring. Treatments can also slow the rate of bone loss if you do have osteoporosis.

    What causes osteoporosis?

    Researchers understand how osteoporosis develops even without knowing the exact cause of why it develops. Your bones are made of living, growing tissue. The inside of healthy bone looks like a sponge. This area is called trabecular bone. An outer shell of dense bone wraps around the spongy bone. This hard shell is called cortical bone.

    When osteoporosis occurs, the "holes" in the "sponge" grow larger and more numerous, which weakens the inside of the bone. Bones support the body and protect vital organs. Bones also store calcium and other minerals. When the body needs calcium, it breaks down and rebuilds bone. This process, called bone remodeling, supplies the body with needed calcium while keeping the bones strong.

    Up until about age 30, you normally build more bone than you lose. After age 35, bone breakdown occurs faster than bone buildup, which causes a gradual loss of bone mass. If you have osteoporosis, you lose bone mass at a greater rate. After menopause, the rate of bone breakdown occurs even more quickly.

    SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES

    What are the symptoms of osteoporosis?

    Usually, there are no symptoms of osteoporosis. That is why it is sometimes called a silent disease. However, you should watch out for the following things:

    Loss of height (getting shorter by an inch or more).

    Change in posture (stooping or bending forward).

    Shortness of breath (smaller lung capacity due to compressed disks).

    Bone fractures.

    Pain in the lower back.

    Who is at risk for developing osteoporosis?

    There are many risk factors that increase your chance of developing osteoporosis, with two of the most significant being gender and age.

    Everyone’s risk for osteoporosis fractures increases with age. However, women over the age of 50 or postmenopausal women have the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis. Women undergo rapid bone loss in the first 10 years after entering menopause, because menopause slows the production of estrogen, a hormone that protects against excessive bone loss.

    Age and osteoporosis affect men also. You might be surprised to know that men over the age of 50 are more likely to have an osteoporosis-induced bone break than to get prostate cancer. About 80,000 men per year are expected to break a hip, and men are more likely than women to die in the year after a hip fracture.

    Your risk of developing osteoporosis is also linked to ethnicity. Caucasian and Asian women are more likely to develop osteoporosis. However, African-American and Hispanic women are still at risk. In fact, African-American women are more likely than white women to die after a hip fracture.Another factor is bone structure and body weight. Petite and thin people have a greater risk of developing osteoporosis because they have less bone to lose than people with more body weight and larger frames.Family history also plays a part in osteoporosis risk. If your parents or grandparents have had any signs of osteoporosis, such as a fractured hip after a minor fall, you may have a greater risk of developing the disease.Finally, some medical conditions and medications increase your risk. If you have or had any of the following conditions, some of which are related to irregular hormone levels, you and your healthcare provider might consider earlier screening for osteoporosis.

    Overactive thyroid, parathyroid, or adrenal glands.

    History of bariatric (weight loss) surgery or organ transplant.

    स्रोत : my.clevelandclinic.org

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