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    Calling War Atrocities by Their Right Name

    “Is it war? Has it started? NO. Check back tomorrow, instead of the news.”

    Back to Western Balkans programme

    BLOG 2022-03-28

    Calling War Atrocities by Their Right Name

    In Bosnia and Herzegovina denial of war crimes is omnipresent

    More than 25 years after the end of armed conflict the weapons may have fallen silent but the country is far from a true social peace. Murals glorify convicted war criminals, death threats are smeared on public buildings, and leading politicians publicly deny genocide and war crimes. Civil society organisations such as forumZFD have long advocated for legal provisions against such harmful practices, which were finally introduced in 2021. However, laws alone cannot bring peace.

    “Is it war?

    Has it started? NO.

    Check back tomorrow, instead of the news.”

    This is the only content of a sarcastic website opened in Bosnia and Herzegovina a few months ago. It reflects the burning issue of whether or not war will flare up any day soon, while local politicians, representatives of the international community, and the media are not providing answers. It may seem a bit dramatic but as reminder: When the war started 30 years ago, it caused massive scales of atrocities including killings, displacement, torture, and rape. This is fresh in the citizens’ memory, and the consequences are still part of the everyday life. But how did the country come to the point where talk of war spreads once more?

    The armed conflict ended in December 1995, by concluding the “General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina” (also known as Dayton Agreement). From there a negative peace was established: The weapons had fallen silent but ethnic discrimination continued, and until today the glorification and denial of war crimes is omnipresent. Contested and one-sided interpretations of historic events – even though the facts are accurately documented and established by courts – are on the rise and normalised in public discourse, causing tension in every segment of post-conflict life.

    In Gradiška, a small town in the Republika Srpska, the Serb-majority entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a man in military uniform salutes the people passing by from the wall of a residential building. Everyone here knows this face: It is Ratko Mladić, military leader of the Bosnian Serbs during the Yugoslav Wars, and a convicted war criminal. In 2017, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague found him guilty on several charges, amongst these genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. In his hometown Kalinovik, another painting shows him with the caption: “town of heroes”.

    Revisionism instead of criminal responsibility

    “We came to a situation in which war crimes are celebrated and criminals are glorified”, says the independent political analyst Tanja Topić from Banja Luka. “Instead of criminal responsibility for these actions, we have the denial and relativization of crimes, and what is even more dangerous – revisionism”. There are many examples of how historical facts are being twisted and denied, including the genocide of Srebrenica. In 1995, under the leadership of Ratko Mladić, the military and police forces of the Republika Srpska executed over 8,000 Bosniak men and boys, and deported about 25,000 women, children and elderly people. A report published last year by the Memorial Center Srebrenica studied the current media discourse in Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighbouring countries, and found 234 incidents in which the genocide was being denied or trivialized. The report also named the culprits: Many of those who spread their own versions about what happened in Srebrenica are active in the political sector, including party leaders as well as current and former public officials.

    Leading this sad list is Milorad Dodik, leader of the Serbian Nationalist Party SNSD and currently one of three members of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which consists of one representative each of the Bosniak, Croatian and Serbian constitutive people. In several cases, Dodik called the Srebrenica genocide “a fabricated myth”. It is by far not the first time that he has publicly denied war crimes. In 2016, when he was still prime minister of the Republika Srpska, he spoke at the inauguration of a student dormitory in Pale near Sarajevo. The building was being named after the convicted war criminal Radovan Karadžić. In his speech Dodik said: “We dedicate this place to the man who undoubtedly set the foundation of Republika Srpska – Radovan Karadžić, the first president of this republic.” It took years until a plaque with Karadžić’s name was finally removed from the building.

    Victims re-experience trauma

    Denial of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity has many faces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ranging from simply claiming that it did not occur to the relativization of the number of victims, conspiracy theories and ‘alternative histories’. In some cases, the recognition of these crimes and the commemoration of its victims are portrayed as acts of aggression against certain groups within society. According to Štefica Galić, human rights activist and editor of the portal Tacno.net, such practices are especially evident in the Republika Srpska and western Herzegovina, as well as in Serbia and Croatia. At every step there are murals of war criminals, banned flags, coats of arms, commemorations of war criminals and other war symbols.

    स्रोत : www.forumzfd.de

    Free Automated Malware Analysis Service

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    Threat Score: 95/100

    AV Detection: 32%

    Labeled as: VBS.ObfDldr.22

    Link Twitter E-Mail


    This report is generated from a file or URL submitted to this webservice on February 12th 2020 22:32:34 (UTC)

    Guest System: Windows 7 32 bit, Professional, 6.1 (build 7601), Service Pack 1

    Falcon Sandbox v8.30 © Hybrid Analysis

    Overview Sample unavailable

    Re-analyze Hash Not Seen Before

    No similar samples

    Request Report Deletion

    Incident Response

    Risk Assessment

    Network Behavior

    Contacts 1 domain. View all details

    MITRE ATT&CK™ Techniques Detection

    This report has 3 indicators that were mapped to 5 attack techniques and 4 tactics. View all details


    Not all malicious and suspicious indicators are displayed. Get your own cloud service or the full version to view all details.

    Malicious Indicators

    4 External Systems

    Sample was identified as malicious by a large number of Antivirus engines

    Sample was identified as malicious by at least one Antivirus engine

    Unusual Characteristics

    References suspicious system modules

    Hiding 1 Malicious Indicators

    All indicators are available only in the private webservice or standalone version

    Suspicious Indicators


    Anti-Reverse Engineering

    Possibly checks for known debuggers/analysis tools

    External Systems

    Found an IP/URL artifact that was identified as malicious by at least one reputation engine


    Executes a visual basic script

    Remote Access Related

    Contains indicators of bot communication commands


    7 General Contacts domains Creates mutants

    Logged script engine calls


    Touches files in the Windows directory

    Network Related

    Found potential URL in binary/memory

    Spyware/Information Retrieval

    Found a reference to a known community page

    Unusual Characteristics

    Installs hooks/patches the running process

    File Details

    All Details:


    Filename JVC_81029.vbs Size

    4.6MiB (4799953 bytes)

    Type script vbs Description

    ASCII text, with very long lines

    Architecture WINDOWS SHA256





    Input File (PortEx)


    Screenshots Hybrid Analysis

    Tip: Click an analysed process below to view more details.

    Analysed 1 process in total (System Resource Monitor).

    wscript.exe "C:\JVC_81029.vbs" (PID: 2832)

    Network Analysis

    DNS Requests

    Login to Download DNS Requests (CSV)

    Domain Address Registrar Country

    mostasharanetalim.ir - - -

    Contacted Hosts

    No relevant hosts were contacted.

    HTTP Traffic

    No relevant HTTP requests were made.

    Extracted Strings

    All Details:

    Download All Memory Strings (411B)

    All Strings (5000) Interesting (4751)

    557daae4c867c0f543cdfda80a85dd4e4dfd268e11861739b0654cbf09c06b31.vbs.bin (4995)

    wscript.exe (1) screen_0.png (3) PCAP (1) "C:\JVC_81029.vbs"

    'accuratenesses noncredibleness foveolets ectotoxin discerp Notungulata Calyptorhynchus triple-bolted rascalize corniced quarter-yard anteroclusion Putsch consuetudinal undesecrated counterlaw barbarized phaseun village-dwelling decos evolvable tyg frith improv phasmid unhesitative heaven-built wrimple hemihypalgesia disprobabilize midline tear-dimmed stratagem Chartreux funnelling overprone aethon symbolum bodyweight progenitor angionoma parrotbeak padeye derivatively swore Diplotaxis neurosurgeon eparterial overburden insurrecto sandworms Megalactractus Scytopetalaceae Cometes hammy interrailway goosefish endues quick-witted FRED noodge vivaciousness Bonneterre skip-kennel singlets heinies Markville discorrespondency subconjunctival banties hailes self-burning costumery NISDN Marysvale inlooking trinitroxylene flashings rued iconoduly uninternational residuary peripter manolis Athalie ascocarpous preopposing decertificaton taxidermize septenate vocality hemokoniosis permixable indow inspiriting Polyzoa asp

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    'archpiece foothold hell-bind FCFS tigellate warree ectolecithal self-analyzed mandrils bufferrers Samau nonsaporific specificating gargoyle pro-Malaysian pharyngalgia tapu Delesseriaceae sporophorous metallism beedi Swisher gibbier Seker nonhabitable fizzier monopolisation esters depurge thiosinamine dynamomorphic Musophagi refamiliarize clinker-built guttie peruser counterstatute Acroceridae monopteroi styceric autodecomposition rangle halides interlocal hiccupped mush worble ko-katana nephewship Sargonide ukeleles fesses rattlingness mesorectum exocardia Petie assizement superplus rims stood dogtail braver slap-sided precolonial nippy frances Clymenia supertough Carolean Swainson grillwork wirelike poliencephalitis picamar stylish dyingness Englewood overrepresent orchestration subadministrated crimple overbalances summating prefract faint-run untuck bumtrap Covel vivariia Flossmoor Hexateuchal cymbate epencephal underlease septship loess spinosympathetic uncraftily unclosable ooscope pretty-faced drumble

    स्रोत : hybrid-analysis.com


    WHOLE MODULES- world literature.docx - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free.

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    WHOLE MODULES - World Literature

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    Information Sheet 1.3

    Introduction to Literature

    Learning Outcomes:

    At the end of this module, you must be able to:

    1. Define literature

    2.Realize the importance of literature

    3. Cite seven literary standards

    4. Describe literary approaches

    5. Identify types of literature

    6. Differentiate Prose and Poetry

    7. Recognize Literary compositions that have influenced the world

    Defining Literature Literature

    , in its broadest sense, is any written work. Etymologically, the term derives from



    “writing formed with letters,” although some definitions include

    spoken or sung texts. More restrictively, it is writing that possesses literary merit. Literature

    can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction and whether it is poetry or

    prose. It can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short

    story or drama, and works are often categorized according to historical periods or their

    adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre).

    Taken to mean only written works, literature was first produced by some of the world’s

    earliest civilizations—those of Ancient Egypt and Sumeria—as early as the 4th millennium

    BC; taken to include spoken or sung texts, it originated even earlier, and some of the first

    written works may have been based on a pre-existing oral tradition. As urban cultures and

    societies developed, there was a proliferation in the forms of literature. Developments in

    print technology allowed for literature to be distributed and experienced on an

    unprecedented scale, which has culminated in the twenty-first century in electronic


    Definitions of literature have varied over time. In Western Europe prior to the eighteenth

    century, literature as a term indicated all books and writin. A more restricted sense of the

    term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate “imaginative”


    Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to the

    older, more inclusive notion of what constitutes literature. Cultural studies, for instance,

    takes as its subject of analysis both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical


    Importance of Literature

    Sparks empathy and understanding

    Reading a book is one of the best ways to fully immerse your mind into another person’s

    dialogue and experiences. Being able to empathise and understand other people’s feelings

    is a key aspect of helping you connect to different regions, races, societies, and periods of


    time. They help a person take a closer look at the different facets of living aside from what

    they know and live which can change perspectives.

    Learn about past lives

    History plays a fundamental role in shaping literature, every novel, play, or poem you read

    has been influenced by political context, or a time period, or a relationship from the time it

    was written.

    Not forgetting the pure history of literature itself with the first novel being penned in 2000

    BC - The Epic of Gilgamesh. Being able to read first-hand something from so long ago is a

    major aspect of learning the lives of historical figures and times.

    Escapism and possibilities

    Reading can take us into different realms and see other people’s creative thought

    processes. Whether it’s flying into Neverland, wandering through Middle Earth, battling at

    Hogwarts, or rafting through the Mississippi River with Huck and Jim - books can take you

    anywhere and any place. This is an amazing tool that few entertainment mediums can truly

    give you and one of the reasons why literature is so beautiful. Whether you’re having a bad

    day, stressed out with work, dealing with new life decisions - books can help you escape

    into another world and live somewhere else for a short amount of time.

    Novels provide knowledge, entertainment, encourage creativity and offer an escape for

    readers - enriching our lives in more ways than one. It’s definitely much more than words in

    a book, and even with the increasing popularity of eBooks, Kindles, Wattpad, and online

    reading they create a conversation, a unique world, and new perspectives.

    Seven Literary Standards

    1. Universality

    – It appeals to everyone regardless of culture, race, sex, and time

    which are considered significant.

    2. Artistry

    – It has an aesthetic appeal to everyone and thus possesses a sense of

    स्रोत : www.scribd.com

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