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    what happens if the execution of a smart contract consumes more than the specified gas?

    Mohammed

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    How to Reduce Smart Contract Gas Usage

    Want to reduce Smart Contract gas usage? Break it down to single function calls with Tenderly Gas Profiler & optimize it using the best coding practices!

    SOLIDITY

    Solidity Gas Optimization: How to Reduce Smart Contract Gas Usage

    Learn how to use Tenderly Gas Profiler to analyze Smart Contract gas usage down to single function calls. Powered with information, try some of the best coding practices to optimize your Smart Contracts & reduce gas fees.

    MILICA LUKIC

    21 JUL 2022 • 7 MIN READ

    Gas is used to pay for the computational resources needed to execute a Smart Contract. The more complex and computationally intensive your Smart Contract is, the more gas it uses and, therefore, the more it costs.

    Additionally, gas fees are an incentive for Ethereum miners to add transactions to blockchain. When you send a transaction, setting a higher limit for gas usage increases the chances of your transaction being included in the next block.

    However, estimating how much gas your Smart Contract will use is often challenging. The price of gas is determined based on many different factors, including supply, demand, and the wavering Ethereum price. So, it becomes particularly important to optimize Smart Contracts properly to reduce their gas consumption in the first place.

    Smart Contract gas estimation vs. optimization

    Many Smart Contract engineers use different tools to estimate gas usage to avoid under or overpaying for gas. However, these estimates aren't always accurate since many varying factors affect the price of gas. For example, different block sizes, block times, block propagation times, or comparisons to recent blocks make it difficult to accurately estimate the possible minimum gas price for the following block.

    This is why Smart Contract optimization is essential, allowing engineers to write and improve upon their code to reduce its gas usage. Ethereum gas optimization requires you to ensure your code executes as intended while consuming less computational resources to do so. And this becomes easier with Tenderly Gas Profiler.

    How to optimize Smart Contract gas usage with Tenderly Gas Profiler

    Gas Profiler provides a detailed overview of how much gas a transaction used upon running on-chain or off-chain. The feature uses flame graphs as a visual representation of gas consumption across the entire transaction. It then allows you to break its gas usage down to individual function calls and see which parts of your code used the most gas to execute.

    You can access Gas Profiler easily by creating a Tenderly account, opening a transaction, and then clicking the Gas Profiler tab in the navigation bar.

    Why use Gas Profiler?

    Many gas profilers on the market are actually gas estimators, focusing primarily on displaying average gas consumption in Smart Contracts. This can be helpful, but in most cases, it doesn't provide the level of detail engineers need.

    On the other hand, Tenderly Gas Profiler makes it easy for engineers to examine how much gas each called function spent for the execution of a transaction. It’s an essential tool for analyzing Smart Contracts and a great starting point for further code optimization. Gas Profiler allows you to understand gas usage on a high level and then deep dive into internal function executions for an in-depth insight.

    How to optimize Smart Contract gas usage in Tenderly

    After gathering the information you need in the Gas Profiler section, you can open the function you want to inspect in Tenderly Debugger by clicking the “View in Debugger” button.

    Once in Debugger, you can further examine the line of code using Stack and Execution Traces for additional information. With such detailed input, you can then determine which code adjustments you can make to reduce gas consumption.

    To assess if the spotted adjustments actually optimize the gas usage, you can use Tenderly Simulator. Before running the Simulation, you can edit the contract source to include these adjustments in the code and Simulate the execution with the changed source.

    So, the next step is to click the Re-Simulate button. Once in the next view, click Edit Contract Source that will open a window where you can optimize the computationally demanding line of code.

    स्रोत : blog.tenderly.co

    Top 30 Blockchain Interview Questions and Answers for 2023

    Here are the most common 30 Blockchain interview questions and answers that will help you get prepared and to crack an interview. Click here to learn now!

    Top 30 Blockchain Interview Questions and Answers for 2023

    Lesson 24 of 33By Ravikiran A S

    Last updated on Oct 27, 202273445

    PreviousNext Tutorial Playlist

    Blockchain Tutorial for Beginners

    Overview

    What is Blockchain Technology? How Does It Work?

    Lesson - 1

    What is Blockchain? Features and Use Cases

    Lesson - 2

    Why is Blockchain Important and Why Does it Matter

    Lesson - 3

    Understanding Cryptocurrency and Its Benefits

    Lesson - 4

    What is Blockchain Wallet and How Does It Work?

    Lesson - 5

    What is Ethereum? Understanding Its Features and Applications

    Lesson - 6

    Bitcoin vs Ethereum: Which One is Better?

    Lesson - 7

    Understanding the Fundamentals of Ethereum Mining

    Lesson - 8

    What is a Smart Contract in Blockchain?

    Lesson - 9

    What Is Dogecoin? Understanding the Crypto-Star!

    Lesson - 10

    Dogecoin vs. Bitcoin : Understanding the World Of Cryptocurrency

    Lesson - 11

    Understanding the Fundamentals of Dogecoin Mining

    Lesson - 12

    A Look Into the Digital Dogecoin Wallet

    Lesson - 13

    9 Industries That Blockchain Will Disrupt in Future

    Lesson - 14

    Emerging Blockchain Applications Across Industries

    Lesson - 15

    How to Become a Blockchain Developer? A Step-by-Step Guide [Updated]

    Lesson - 16

    The Ultimate Guide to Understand What Is NFT

    Lesson - 17

    The Complete Guide On Solidity Programming

    Lesson - 18

    The Future of Shiba Inu Coin and Why Invest In It

    Lesson - 19

    Understanding the Fundamentals of Ethereum Classic

    Lesson - 20

    Understanding the Fundamentals of Merkle Tree in Blockchain

    Lesson - 21

    What Is Cardano?: The Complete Guide of Its Concepts

    Lesson - 22

    What Is Matic Network?: Exploring the Concepts of Matic

    Lesson - 23

    Top 30 Blockchain Interview Questions and Answers for 2023

    Lesson - 24

    What Is Tether? The Ultimate Guide

    Lesson - 25

    A Comprehensive Comparison of NFT Vs. Crypto

    Lesson - 26

    What Is Web 3.0? Everything You Need to Know About Web 3.0

    Lesson - 27

    The Complete Guide for Types of Blockchain!

    Lesson - 28

    What is DeFi?: A New Era Of Digital Finance

    Lesson - 29

    The Complete Guide to Understand ‘What Is Ripple’

    Lesson - 30

    The Complete Guide to Understand the Foundation of What Binance Is

    Lesson - 31

    What Is DAO?: A Brief Introduction to a New Era of Technology

    Lesson - 32

    A Complete Guide to Understand What Stablecoin Is

    Lesson - 33

    Table of Contents

    Blockchain Interview Questions - Beginner Level

    Blockchain Interview Questions - Intermediate Level

    Blockchain Interview Questions - Expert Level

    Conclusion

    With the popularity of Blockchain increasing every day and new jobs opening up in the area, it is important to know how you can prepare for Blockchain interviews to land your dream job. This article (and the attached video) will take you through some of the key questions and their answers that you should be prepared for. Let’s take a look.

    Blockchain Certification Training Course

    Gain expertise in core Blockchain conceptsView Course

    Blockchain Interview Questions - Beginner Level

    1. Differentiate between Blockchain and Hyperledger.

    Blockchain is a decentralized technology of immutable records called blocks, which are secured using cryptography. Hyperledger is a platform or an organization that allows people to build private Blockchain.

    Using Blockchain you can build public and private Blockchain whereas with Hyperledger you can only build private Blockchains.

    Blockchain is divided into public, private, and consortium Blockchains and Hyperledger is a private Blockchain technology with access to Blockchain data and is limited to predefined users, configurations, and programming.

    Blockchain can be used in multiple fields such as business, government, healthcare, etc. while Hyperledger is primarily used for enterprise-based solutions. Wherever we talk about public Blockchain, it refers to the usage of Blockchain on the internet, and Hyperledger-based Blockchain solutions are solutions meant for usage on the intranet, within an organization.

    2. How do you explain Blockchain technology to someone who doesn't know it?

    Blockchain technology is a distributed ledger, which stores transaction details in the form of immutable records or non-modifiable records (called blocks) which are secured using cryptography.

    Let’s consider the example of a school where Blockchain is similar to a digital report card of a student. Say, each block contains a student record that has a label (stating the date and time) of when the record was entered. Neither the teacher nor the student will be able to modify the details of that block or the record of report cards. Also, the teacher owns a private key that allows him/her to make new records and the student owns a public key that allows him to view and access the report card at any time. So basically, the teacher owns the right to update the record while the student only has the right to view the record. This method makes the data secure.

    स्रोत : www.simplilearn.com

    Simply Explained: Ethereum Gas. Just like the gas you put in your car…

    For those of you already familiar with Ether transactions, you’ve probably heard of gas. It pops up in your MetaMask when you make a transaction, saying the “gas limit” is something like 21000 and…

    Simply Explained: Ethereum Gas

    Simply Explained: Ethereum Gas Just like the gas you put in your car, almost.

    For those of you already familiar with Ether transactions, you’ve probably heard of gas. It pops up in your MetaMask when you make a transaction, saying the “gas limit” is something like 21000 and the “gas price” is 1. So what does that all mean?

    Well, gas is a unit that measures the use of computational power in the Ethereum network. That is, how much effort computers processing a certain operation will need to put in to successfully execute the operation. Operations in Ethereum are, for example, sending Ether to another address, publishing a contract, calling a function on a contract, among others. When these happen, miners process that information in the EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) to reach the proper outcomes, such as executing a function and returning the right data or sending the ETH to the right address. In doing this, these miners are using their computational power, and the more complex a transaction is, the more power it will consume, hence using more gas.

    Gas acts as the fuel of the Ethereum platform

    Gas limit

    Gas limit defines the maximum amount of gas an operation can use. For example, when sending some Ether from Alice to Bob, the gas limit is usually set at a standard of 21000, assuming no more data is included in the transaction. 21000 is the minimum amount of gas an operation on Ethereum will use. This limit is used to guarantee that the transaction will be executed. The limit is usually provided by the clients/wallets, which estimate the maximum boundary for gas use of an operation, to assure that it will be executed properly without the user having to worry. In this case, the unused Ether used to pay for the extra gas will be returned to your account if the operation uses less gas than the limit. While many times the limit is set for you, it can also be set manually, in which case the user runs the risk of the operation failing, if the limit is not enough.

    More complex operations will use up more gas. See the example list below, ordered from lowest to highest gas requirements.

    Sending Ether to another address

    Sending Ether to another address with some added metadata

    Calling a function on a smart contract

    Publishing a simple smart contract

    Publishing a complex smart contract

    Lastly, if you want to know how the gas limit of an operation is calculated, the formula provided by the Ethereum Yellow Paper is as follows:

    gasLimit = G(transaction) + G(txdatanonzero) × dataByteLength

    Gas price

    Gas price is the comparative equivalent of the miner fee in Bitcoin. In Bitcoin, you choose how much you want to pay the miner to process your transaction, being so that the higher the fee, the faster the transaction will be included in a block (in general, assuming participants rationally follow the financial incentive structure).

    In Ethereum, things work similarly. Once the gas limit for a transaction is set, you can choose how much you wish to pay for each unit of gas. The more you pay, the faster you expect your operation to execute. Gas price is most often calculated in Gwei, a subunit/denomination of Ether, equal to 1/10⁹ ETH. Usually, when operating in the mainnet, users will pay between 1–60 Gwei per unit of gas, depending on how overloaded the network is.

    Hence, the equation for how much in Ether you will pay in “network fees” is:

    cost (ETH) = gasLimit × gasPrice × (1/10⁹)

    Example — Alice sends 2ETH to Bob, choosing a gas price of 2 Gwei:

    21000 × 2 × (1/10⁹) = 0.000042 ETH

    Important note: The gas price is not selected by the network. It is chosen by the user, or sometimes, by the client, which shields the user from this information and sets a standard gas price, for the sake of usability (yet often at a higher cost for the end user).

    For future reference, you should check the following website:

    ETH Gas Station

    ETH gasprice recommendations

    ethgasstation.info

    The website tells you what it calls the “SafeLow Cost for Transfer”, which is the minimum gas price you should set to have a high chance of your transaction being included in one of the next blocks (usually over 90% chance of it being included in the next 10 blocks).

    As a rule of thumb, you should set higher gas prices for urgent transactions, and lower prices for transactions you don’t mind taking a while to confirm.

    It is also worth noting that if your gas limit is set at, for example, 300000, you choose to pay 40 Gwei for each unit of gas, and ultimately, the transaction only uses 21000 gas, you will be refunded:

    [(300000–21000) × 40 × (1/10⁹)] = 0.01116ETH

    The takeaway here is: you are refunded for unused gas, accounted for the price you paid for it, but you are not refunded for setting the gas price too high.

    स्रोत : yakkomajuri.medium.com

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