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    what happens to the bacterial cells if a compound that interferes with the synthesis of the cell wall is added to an environment with high solute concentration?

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    SOLVED: The major role of the cell wall in bacteria is protecting the cell against changes in osmotic pressure, pressure caused by different solute concentrations in the environment. Bacterial cells swell, but do not burst, in low solute concentrations. What happens to bacterial cells if a compound that interferes with the synthesis of the cell wall is added to an environment with low solute concentrations? a. Bacterial cells will shrink due to the lack of cell wall material. b. Bacterial cells will shrink in size. c. Bacterial cells may burst due to the influx of water. d. Bacterial cells remain normal; they have alternative pathways to synthesize cell walls

    VIDEO ANSWER: The most important role of the cell wall is to protect the cell against changes in osmotic pressure pressure caused by different solute concentrations in the environment. We want to understand what happens to the cells when they are put

    स्रोत : www.numerade.com

    AP BIO chapter 4 moodle quiz Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like When viewing a specimen through a light microscope, what is a method that scientists use to make it easier to see individual components of cells? a. a beam of electrons b. high temperatures c. special stains d. radioactive isotopes, What is the basic unit of life? a. cell b. organ c. tissue d. organism, Which of the following statements is part of the cell theory? a. All living organisms are made of cells. b. All cells depend on their surroundings to provide energy. c. All cells have a nucleus. d. All cells contain DNA that they pass on to daughter cells. and more.

    AP BIO chapter 4 moodle quiz

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    When viewing a specimen through a light microscope, what is a method that scientists use to make it easier to see individual components of cells?

    a. a beam of electrons

    b. high temperatures

    c. special stains

    d. radioactive isotopes

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    Definition 1 / 33 c

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    Terms in this set (33)

    When viewing a specimen through a light microscope, what is a method that scientists use to make it easier to see individual components of cells?

    a. a beam of electrons

    b. high temperatures

    c. special stains

    d. radioactive isotopes

    c

    What is the basic unit of life?

    a. cell b. organ c. tissue d. organism a

    Which of the following statements is part of the cell theory?

    a. All living organisms are made of cells.

    b. All cells depend on their surroundings to provide energy.

    c. All cells have a nucleus.

    d. All cells contain DNA that they pass on to daughter cells.

    a

    Which of the following could most effectively be visualized with a scanning electron microscope?

    a. the movement of molecules inside the cell

    b. a three-dimensional view of the surface of a membrane

    c. details of structures inside cells

    d. cells swimming in a drop of pond water.

    b

    Which of the following observations contributed to the cell theory?

    a. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane.

    b. Animal and plant cells have nuclei and organelles.

    c. Non-living material cannot give rise to living organisms.

    d. Viruses replicate.

    c

    In order to obtain some materials and remove waste, what process is used by prokaryotes?

    a. diffusion b. cell division c. flagellar motion d. ribosomes a

    What is a difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

    a. Both cells have cytoplasm but prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus.

    b. Both cells have a nucleus but prokaryotic cells lack cytoplasm.

    c. Both cells have DNA but prokaryotic cells lack a cell membrane.

    d. Both cells have a cell membrane but prokaryotic cells lack DNA

    a

    When bacteria lack fimbriae, what are they less likely to do?

    a. retain the ability to divide

    b. Adhere to cell surfaces

    c. synthesize proteins

    d. swim through bodily fluids

    b

    Eukaryotic cells contain complex organelles that carry out their chemical reactions. Prokaryotes lack many of these complex organelles, although they have a variety of unique structures of their own. However, most prokaryotic cells can exchange nutrients with the outside environment faster than most eukaryotic cells. Why is this so?

    a.

    Most prokaryotic cells are smaller, and have a higher surface-to-volume ratio, than eukaryotic cells.

    b.

    Most prokaryotic cells are smaller, and have a lower surface-to-volume ratio than eukaryotic cells.

    c.

    Most prokaryotic cells are larger, and have a higher surface-to-volume ratio than eukaryotic cells.

    d.

    Prokaryotic cells are larger and have a lower surface-to-volume ratio than eukaryotic cells.

    a

    Which element of the cell theory has practical applications in health care because it promotes the use of sterilization and disinfection?

    a. A nucleus and organelles are found in prokaryotic cells.

    b. A cell is the basic unit of life.

    c. All cells come from pre-existing cells.

    d. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.

    c

    Which of the following is most likely to have the greatest concentration of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)?

    Select one:

    a. a cell that secretes enzymes

    b. a cell that makes steroid hormones

    c. a cell that destroys pathogens

    d. a cell that engages in photosynthesis

    b

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of light microscopes? What are the advantages and disadvantages of electron microscopes?

    a. Advantage: Light microscopes have high resolution. Electron microscopes are helpful in viewing surface details of a specimen. Disadvantage: Light microscopes kill the cell. Electron microscopes are costly and low resolution.

    b. Advantage: In light microscopes, the light beam does not kill the cell. Electron microscopes are helpful in viewing intricate details of a specimen and have high resolution. Disadvantage: Light microscopes have low resolving power. Electron microscopes are costly and require killing the specimen.

    c. Advantage: Light microscopes have high resolution. Electron microscopes are helpful in viewing surface details of a specimen. Disadvantage: Light microscopes can be used only in the presence of light and are costly. Electron microscopes uses short wavelength of electrons and hence have lower magnification.

    d. Advantage: Light microscopes have high magnification. Electron microscopes are helpful in viewing surface details of a specimen. Disadvantage: Light microscopes can be used only in the presence of light and have lower resolution. Electron microscopes can be used only for viewing ultra-thin specimens.

    b

    Which of the following sequences correctly lists in order the steps involved in the incorporation of a protein within a cell membrane?

    स्रोत : quizlet.com

    Bacterial Cell Mechanics

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could ...

    Biochemistry. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2018 Nov 28.

    Published in final edited form as:

    Biochemistry. 2017 Jul 25; 56(29): 3710–3724.

    Published online 2017 Jul 11. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00346

    PMCID: PMC6260806

    NIHMSID: NIHMS996159

    PMID: 28666084

    Bacterial Cell Mechanics

    George K. Auer† and Douglas B. Weibel*†‡§

    Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer

    The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Biochemistry

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    Abstract

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

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    Graphical Abstract

    Bacteria inhabit a wide range of different environments in which they experience fluctuating physical and chemical stresses. For example, osmotic pressure across the bacterial cell wall arises from a mismatch in the intracellular and extracellular concentration of solutes. Sudden changes in the extracellular concentration of solutes create an osmotic pressure in bacteria that may reach ~20 atm.1 To survive, bacteria have evolved cell walls to mechanically resist osmotic pressure and osmoregulatory machinery that senses pressure and transports solutes into and out of cells to reduce pressure. The current model of bacterial mechanics is one in which the polymeric meshwork surrounding cells, termed the peptidoglycan, provides significant mechanical properties. The peptidoglycan is a macro-molecular cellular “exoskeleton” that stabilizes the cell wall and provides structural integrity to the cell. Additional structural elements have been uncovered recently, indicating that the peptidoglycan is one element of a larger set of macromolecular materials that influence cell mechanics.2,3 Several new tools enable studies of bacterial mechanics at the single-cell level2,4,5 and provide a proteome/genome-wide view of mechanomicrobiology.6

    In contrast to those of microbes, eukaryotic cell mechanics are much better understood. Eukaryotic studies provided insight into the progression of human diseases7–10 in which changes in cellular mechanics are important.9,10 For example, the infection of red blood cells by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which is primarily responsible for the mortality caused by malaria,11 causes a 10-fold increase in the stiffness of infected red blood cells. Changes in red blood cell mechanics arise from increased membrane stiffness and alterations in the spectrin cytoskeletal protein network that reduce the flow of blood and eventually lead to a loss of microcirculation.7,12 Changes in cell mechanics are also linked to a wide range of human health conditions and diseases, including asthma, osteoporosis, cancer, glaucoma, and osteoarthritis.10 Finally, mechanical stress applied to eukaryotic cells, through substrate elasticity, can alter cell physiology and control development; e.g., altering matrix elasticity steers the mesenchymal stem down different lineages.13

    The study of eukaryotic cell mechanics has provided insight into the importance of control over cell mechanics in normal cellular function and in different states of disease.14 Likewise, the study of bacteria may uncover roles for cell mechanics linked to their cellular function and applications in the infection of eukaryotic hosts. In addition, the problem of widespread drug resistance of bacteria to antibiotics may benefit from studies in this area, in which a more detailed understanding of bacterial mechanics can uncover the physical effects of current antibiotics, uncover new therapeutic targets, and provide insight into the mechanisms of resistance of clinical antibiotics.

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    MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIAL CELLS

    The mechanical properties of cells are most frequently described by the Young’s modulus and bending rigidity.2–4, 15–19 Below we provide a brief definition and overview of these terms.

    स्रोत : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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