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    Scoliosis Factsheet (for Schools) (for Parents)

    What teachers should know about scoliosis, and how to help students with the condition.

    Scoliosis Factsheet (for Schools)

    Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD

    Print en español

    Hoja informativa sobre la escoliosis (para las escuelas)

    What Teachers Should Know

    Scoliosis is a condition in which the spine curves. A person with scoliosis may have a back that curves from side to side like an "S" or a "C." Conditions like cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy can cause scoliosis, but most of the time there is no clear cause.

    Scoliosis can develop over time. Often, it's not diagnosed until a child is 10 to 14 years old, the ages when most kids have growth spurts.

    Most students with scoliosis don't need any intervention because most small curves don't cause problems. But if the curve gets worse, it can:

    become more visible

    cause discomfort or pain

    affect a person's lungs and heart

    lead to damage in the joints of the spine

    For significant scoliosis curves, doctors usually recommend that kids wear a brace. Most braces can be worn under clothing. In severe cases, surgery will help correct the curvature of the spine. With effective treatment, almost every student with scoliosis can have an active, normal life.

    Students with scoliosis may:

    feel embarrassed about wearing a brace

    miss a lot of class time if surgery is needed

    need extra time to complete assignments and make up tests

    benefit from a 504 educational plan that calls for seating accommodations, extra time getting to and from classes, and elevator privileges if available

    need to visit the school nurse for pain medicine or brace adjustments

    need to be excused from physical education and sports

    What Teachers Can Do

    Most children with scoliosis have no physical limitations. Scoliosis does not affect a student's ability to learn, but wearing a brace or having physical limitations can make a student feel self-conscious or embarrassed. Encourage students to participate in all activities they're up to, and be understanding of any discomfort or tiredness they feel.

    Depending on the degree of scoliosis, students may see several medical specialists. Allowing extra time to complete assignments and sending work home while a student recovers from surgery can help them keep up and not feel overwhelmed.

    Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD

    Date reviewed: November 2019


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    स्रोत : kidshealth.org

    What Is Scoliosis?

    Scoliosis is a condition where the spine is curved rather than straight. Many people suffer from mild to severe scoliosis. Read this lesson to find...

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    What Is Scoliosis? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

    Instructor: Danielle Haak

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    Scoliosis is a condition where the spine is curved rather than straight. Many people suffer from mild to severe scoliosis. Read this lesson to find out what causes it, what the symptoms are, and how to treat it.

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    What is Scoliosis?

    Scoliosis is a medical condition where the spine is curved to one side of the body, rather than straight. A doctor can usually make an initial diagnosis during a routine exam, where he or she will feel the path of your spine. In fact, 2-3% of people have been diagnosed with scoliosis by the age of 16, and girls are more likely to have it than boys.

    Quiz Course 7.7K views

    Scoliosis is a condition where the spine laterally curves instead of growing straight.

    Causes of Scoliosis

    So what causes scoliosis? Why might the spine not grow straight like it's supposed to? There are actually a number of causes, so let's go through them.

    1. The curvature could be caused a congenital, or birth-related, defect. The bones may simply not have grown and developed correctly.2. Other medical conditions affecting the nerves or muscles could affect the spine. Typically, cases of neuromuscular scoliosis are due to spina bifida or cerebral palsy and can result in complete paralysis.3. An injury, previous surgery, or osteoporosis can cause the spine to change shape. This is known as degenerative scoliosis.4.The most common form of scoliosis is idiopathic scoliosis. Unfortunately, in this case, there is no obvious cause. The condition may be inherited, but that theory is still being tested.

    Scoliosis Symptoms

    Initial symptoms that may signal scoliosis include slumped or uneven shoulders, one very visible shoulder blade, an uneven waist, or even an overall slight lean to one side. In some cases, one leg may appear longer than the other, or one hip will appear higher than the other. After the initial exam, x-rays may be necessary to fully assess the severity of the condition. Many cases are minor enough to not require extreme treatment measures, and back pain is usually not a symptom of scoliosis.

    Treatment Options

    There are two primary treatment options for more severe cases of scoliosis. The first is wearing a brace. This is the first treatment for cases where the patient's spine is curved 25-40%, and it works best when the patient is still growing. The brace can help guide the spine to straighten out as it grows, instead of continuing to curve. If the brace is removed before the spine is done growing, it is likely that the spine will resume its curved positioning.

    A series of braces can be used to correct mild cases of scoliosis.

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    Scoliosis is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is most often diagnosed in childhood or early adolescence.


    Online Course: Introduction to Spinal Orthoses


    Scoliosis is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is most often diagnosed in childhood or early adolescence.

    The spine's normal curves occur at the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions in the so-called “sagittal” plane. These natural curves position the head over the pelvis and work as shock absorbers to distribute mechanical stress during movement. Scoliosis is often defined as spinal curvature in the “coronal” (frontal) plane. While the degree of curvature is measured on the coronal plane, scoliosis is actually a more complex, three-dimensional problem which involves the following planes:

    Coronal plane Sagittal plane Axial plane

    The coronal plane is a vertical plane from head to foot and parallel to the shoulders, dividing the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) sections. The sagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves. The axial plane is parallel to the plane of the ground and at right angles to the coronal and sagittal planes.[1]

    Scoliosis is defined by the Cobb's angle of spine curvature in the coronal plane and is often accompanied by vertebral rotation in the transverse plane and hypokyphosis in the sagittal plane.

    These abnormalities in the spine, costal-vertebral joints, and the rib cage produce a ‘convex’ and ‘concave’ hemithorax.

    The rotation component starts when the scoliosis becomes more pronounced. This is called a torsion-scoliosis, causing a gibbus.[2][3]

    Clinically Relevant Anatomy

    The vertebral column normally consists of 24 separate bony vertebrae, together with 5 fused vertebrae that form the sacrum, and usually, 4 fused vertebrae that form the coccyx

    7 cervical vertebrae

    12 thoracic vertebrae

    5 lumbar vertebrae.

    Variations can occur such as hemi-vertebrae and fused vertebrae.

    When viewed from the side, the vertebral column displays five curves in the upright posture:[4]

    Cervical curves

    2 normally occurring curves in the cervical spine: the upper cervical curve extending from the occiput to the axis, and the longer lordotic curve of the lower cervical spine extending from the axis to the second thoracic vertebrae. The upper cervical curve is convex forwards and is the reverse of the lower cervical curve.

    Thoracic curve

    Concave forwards, extending from T2 to T12. The concavity is due to the greater depth of the posterior parts of the vertebral bodies in this region. In the upper part there is often a slight lateral curve with the convexity directed to either the right or left.

    Lumbar curve

    Convex forwards and extends from L1 to the lumbosacral junction.

    Sacral curve

    Extends from the lumbosacral junction to the coccyx, anterior concavity faces downwards and forwards.


    Scoliosis affects 2-3 percent of the population, or an estimated six to nine million people in the United States.

    Scoliosis can develop in infancy or early childhood.

    The primary age of onset for scoliosis is 10-15 years old, occurring equally among both genders.

    Females are eight times more likely to progress to a curve magnitude that requires treatment.

    Every year, scoliosis patients make more than 600,000 visits to private physician offices, an estimated 30,000 children are fitted with a brace and 38,000 patients undergo spinal fusion surgery (US figures)[1]


    Scoliosis can be classified by etiology: idiopathic, congenital or neuromuscular.

    Idiopathic scoliosis

    The diagnosis when all other causes are excluded and comprises about 80 percent of all cases.

    Adult scoliosis has a prevalence of more than 8 % in adults over the age of 25 and rises up 68 % in the age of over 60 years, caused by degenerative changes in the aging spine.[5] and a prevalence of 2,5 % in the general population with a Cobb angle larger than 10 degrees[2].

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis and is usually diagnosed during puberty.

    Classified into the following subgroups:

    Infantile scoliosis: Infantile scoliosis develops at the age of 0–3 years and shows a prevalence of 1 %.

    Juvenile scoliosis: Juvenile scoliosis develops at the age of 4–10 years, comprises 10–15 % of all idiopathic scoliosis in children, untreated curves may cause serious cardiopulmonary complications, and curves of 30 and more tend to progress, 95 % of these patients need a surgical procedure.

    Adolescent scoliosis: Adolescent scoliosis develops at the age of 11–18 years, accounts for approximately 90 % of cases of idiopathic scoliosis in children.

    Congenital scoliosis

    Results from embryological malformation of one or more vertebrae and may occur in any location of the spine.

    स्रोत : www.physio-pedia.com

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