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    Get started with permissions, access levels, and security groups

    Understand how permissions are managed in Azure DevOps

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    Get started with permissions, access, and security groups

    Article 10/26/2022 16 minutes to read

    Azure DevOps Services | Azure DevOps Server 2022 - Azure DevOps Server 2019 | TFS 2018

    When it comes to accessing an Azure DevOps feature, it's helpful to understand the following key concepts.

    About permissions:

    All users added to Azure DevOps are added to one or more default security groups.

    Security groups are assigned permissions, which either allow or deny access to a feature or task.

    Members of a security group inherit the permissions assigned to the group.

    Permissions are defined at different levels: organization/collection, project, or object.

    Other permissions are managed through role-based assignments, such as team administrator, extension management, and various pipeline resource roles.

    Administrators can define custom security groups to manage permissions for different functional areas.

    About access levels:

    All users added to Azure DevOps are assigned to an access level, which grants or restricts access to select web portal features.

    There are three main access levels: Stakeholder, Basic, and Basic + Test Plans.

    Stakeholder access provides free access to an unlimited number of users to a limited set of features. For details, see Stakeholder access quick reference.

    About preview features:

    As new features are introduced, users can enable or disable them through Preview features to access them.

    A small subset of new features is managed at the organization level and enabled or disabled by organization owners.

    For example, most Azure DevOps users are added to the Contributors security group and granted Basic access level. The Contributors group provides read and write access to repositories, work tracking, pipelines, and more. Basic access provides access to all features and tasks for using Azure Boards, Azure Repos, Azure Pipelines, and Azure Artifacts. Users who require access to manage Azure Test Plans need to be granted Basic + Test Plans or Advanced access.

    Administrators should be added to the Project Collection Administrators or Project Administrators group. Administrators manage security groups and permissions from the web portal, primarily from Project settings. Contributors manage permissions for objects they create from the web portal as well.

    For an overview of default permissions, see Default permissions quick reference.

    Security groups and membership

    With the creation of an organization, collection, or project—Azure DevOps creates a set of default security groups, which are automatically assigned default permissions. Additional security groups are defined with the following actions:

    When you create custom security groups at the following levels:


    Organization- or collection-level

    Server-level (on-premises only)

    When you add a team, a team security group is created


    You can't create an object-level security group, but you can assign a custom group to an object-level and assign permissions to that level. To learn more about object-level permissions, see Set object-level permissions.

    Default security groups

    The following security groups are defined by default for each project and organization. You typically add users or groups to the Readers, Contributors, or Project Administrators groups.

    Project Organization or Collection

    - Build Administrators

    - Contributors

    - Project Administrators

    - Project Valid Users

    - Readers

    - Release Administrators

    - TeamName Team - Project Collection Administrators

    - Project Collection Build Administrators

    - Project Collection Build Service Accounts

    - Project Collection Proxy Service Accounts

    - Project Collection Service Accounts

    - Project Collection Test Service Accounts

    - Project Collection Valid Users

    - Project-Scoped Users

    - Security Service Group

    For a description of each of these groups, see Security groups, service accounts, and permissions. For default permission assignments made to the most common default security groups, see Default permissions and access.


    For users tasked with managing project-level features —such as, teams, area and iteration paths, repositories, service hooks, and service end points—add them to the Project Administrators group. For users tasked with managing organization or collection-level features —such as, projects, policies, processes, retention policies, agent and deployment pools, and extensions—add them to the Project Collection Administrators group. To learn more, see About user, team, project, and organization-level settings.

    स्रोत : learn.microsoft.com

    Owner, Editor, and Viewer roles

    Catch up on everything announced at Firebase Summit, and learn how Firebase can help you accelerate app development and run your app with confidence. Learn More

    Firebase Documentation Fundamentals Was this helpful?

    Owner, Editor, and Viewer roles

    Basic roles (Owner, Editor, and Viewer) are fundamental roles for IAM and include different levels of access permissions for all the Firebase products and services.

    The following table summarizes the permissions included in each role. Learn more about basic roles in the Google Cloud documentation.

    Note that basic roles were formerly called "primitive" roles.

    Assign these roles to project members using the Firebase console or the Google Cloud Console.

    Note: Assigning roles using the Google Cloud Console is helpful if you don't have access to open the Firebase project via the Firebase console (for example, you're the administrator of the project's Google Cloud organization).

    Role Permissions


    roles/viewer Permissions for read-only actions, such as viewing (but not modifying) existing resources or data.


    roles/editor All the Viewer role permissions, plus permissions for actions that modify state, such as changing existing resources.

    Note: The roles/editor role contains permissions to create and delete resources for most Firebase products and services.Owner

    roles/owner All the Editor role permissions, plus permissions for the following actions:

    Manage roles and permissions for a project and all resources within the project.

    Set up billing for a project.

    Delete or restore a project.

    Importance of assigning the Owner role

    To ensure proper management of a Firebase project, it must have an Owner. A project's Owner is the person who can perform several important administrative actions (like assigning roles and managing Google Analytics properties), and Firebase Support can only fulfill administrative requests from demonstrated project Owners.

    After you set up the Owner(s) for a Firebase project, it's important to keep those assignments up-to-date.

    Note that if a Firebase project is part of a Google Cloud organization, the person who manages your Google Cloud organization can perform many tasks that an Owner can do. However, for several Owner-specific tasks (like assigning roles or managing Google Analytics properties), the administrator may need to assign themselves the actual Owner role to perform those tasks.

    Was this helpful?

    स्रोत : firebase.google.com

    Using resource hierarchy for access control

    IAM Documentation Guides Was this helpful?

    Using resource hierarchy for access control

    Note: You can now use deny policies, available in Preview, to prevent principals from using some permissions. Using deny policies might cause the features described on this page to work differently.

    Google Cloud resources are organized hierarchically, where the organization node is the root node in the hierarchy, the projects are the children of the organization, and the other resources are descendants of projects. You can set allow policies at different levels of the resource hierarchy. Resources inherit the allow policies of the parent resource. The effective allow policy for a resource is the union of the allow policy set at that resource and the allow policy inherited from its parent.

    This page describes some examples of how allow policy inheritance works and explains the best practices that you must take into consideration when you create resources during Identity and Access Management (IAM) deployment.


    Understand the basic concepts of IAM, in particular the Google Cloud resource hierarchy.


    The following diagram shows an example of a Google Cloud resource hierarchy.

    IAM lets you set allow policies at the following levels of the resource hierarchy:

    Organization level. The organization resource represents your company. IAM roles granted at this level are inherited by all resources under the organization. For more information, see Access control for organizations using IAM.Folder level. Folders can contain projects, other folders, or a combination of both. Roles granted at the highest folder level will be inherited by projects or other folders that are contained in that parent folder. For more information, see Access control for folders using IAM.Project level. Projects represent a trust boundary within your company. Services within the same project have a default level of trust. For example, App Engine instances can access Cloud Storage buckets within the same project. IAM roles granted at the project level are inherited by resources within that project. For more information, see Access control for projects using IAM.Resource level. In addition to the existing Cloud Storage and BigQuery ACL systems, additional resources such as Genomics Datasets, Pub/Sub topics, and Compute Engine instances support lower-level roles so that you can grant certain users permission to a single resource within a project.

    Allow policies are hierarchical and propagate down the structure. The effective allow policy for a resource is the union of the allow policy set at that resource and the allow policy inherited from its parent.

    The following examples explain how allow policy inheritance works in practice.

    Example: Pub/Sub

    In Pub/Sub, topics and subscriptions are resources that live under a project. Assume that project_1 has a topic topic_a under it. If you set an allow policy on project_1 that grants the Editor role to [email protected], and set an allow policy on topic_a that grants the Publisher role to [email protected], you effectively grant the Editor role to [email protected] and the Publisher role to [email protected] for topic_a.

    The following diagram illustrates the preceding example.

    The Owner, Editor, and Viewer roles are concentric; that is, the Owner role includes the permissions in the Editor role, and the Editor role includes the permissions of the Viewer role. If you grant both the broader and limited role (such as Editor and the Viewer) to the same person, only the broader role is granted to them. For example, if you grant the Editor role to [email protected] at the project level and grant the Viewer role to [email protected] for topic_a, Bob is granted the Editor role for topic_a. This is because you've already granted Bob the Editor role for topic_a, which is inherited from the allow policy set on project_a.

    The following diagram illustrates the preceding example.

    Example: Cloud Storage

    In Cloud Storage, buckets and objects are resources, and objects are located in buckets. An example of using IAM with Cloud Storage is to allow read access to files that are uploaded.

    Consider a scenario where many users upload files to a bucket, but they shouldn't be able to read or delete any of the files uploaded by other users. Your data processing expert should be able to read and delete uploaded files, but they shouldn't be able to delete buckets because others are using the bucket location to upload their files. In this scenario, you would set allow policies on the project as follows:

    Grant the Storage Object Admin role to your data processing expert, Alice at [email protected]

    Alice has object admin rights at the project level and can read, add, and delete any object in any bucket in the project.

    Grant Storage Object Creator to a group of users, [email protected]

    This allow policy means that anyone who is a member of the group [email protected] can upload files to the bucket.

    A group member owns files that they upload, but they can't read or delete any files that other users upload.

    The following diagram illustrates the preceding example.

    Example: Compute Engine

    In larger companies the management of network and security resources such as firewalls are typically managed by a dedicated team, which is different from the development team. The development teams may want the flexibility to launch instances and carry out other actions related to instances in their projects. Granting [email protected] the Compute Network Admin role at the organization level and [email protected] the Compute Instance Admin role on her project project_2 lets Alice carry out any actions on instances while preventing her from making any changes to the network resources associated with her project. Only Bob can make changes to the network resources in the organization and to any projects under that organization.

    स्रोत : cloud.google.com

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