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    Ozone layer

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    Ozone layer

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    Ozone-oxygen cycle in the ozone layer.

    The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. It contains a high concentration of ozone (O3) in relation to other parts of the atmosphere, although still small in relation to other gases in the stratosphere. The ozone layer contains less than 10 parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone concentration in Earth's atmosphere as a whole is about 0.3 parts per million. The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from approximately 15 to 35 kilometers (9 to 22 mi) above Earth, although its thickness varies seasonally and geographically.[1]

    The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson. Measurements of the sun showed that the radiation sent out from its surface and reaching the ground on Earth is usually consistent with the spectrum of a black body with a temperature in the range of 5,500–6,000 K (5,230–5,730 °C), except that there was no radiation below a wavelength of about 310 nm at the ultraviolet end of the spectrum. It was deduced that the missing radiation was being absorbed by something in the atmosphere. Eventually the spectrum of the missing radiation was matched to only one known chemical, ozone.[2] Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson, who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobsonmeter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. Between 1928 and 1958, Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations, which continue to operate to this day. The "Dobson unit", a convenient measure of the amount of ozone overhead, is named in his honor.

    The ozone layer absorbs 97 to 99 percent of the Sun's medium-frequency ultraviolet light (from about 200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which otherwise would potentially damage exposed life forms near the surface.[3]

    In 1976, atmospheric research revealed that the ozone layer was being depleted by chemicals released by industry, mainly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Concerns that increased UV radiation due to ozone depletion threatened life on Earth, including increased skin cancer in humans and other ecological problems,[4] led to bans on the chemicals, and the latest evidence is that ozone depletion has slowed or stopped. The United Nations General Assembly has designated September 16 as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.

    Venus also has a thin ozone layer at an altitude of 100 kilometers above the planet's surface.[5]

    Contents

    1 Sources 2 Ultraviolet light

    3 Distribution in the stratosphere

    4 Depletion

    5 Implications for astronomy

    6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

    Sources

    The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were discovered by the British physicist Sydney Chapman in 1930. Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking ordinary oxygen molecules containing two oxygen atoms (O2), splitting them into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxygen); the atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken O2 to create ozone, O3. The ozone molecule is unstable (although, in the stratosphere, long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O2 and an individual atom of oxygen, a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle. Chemically, this can be described as:

    {\displaystyle {\ce {O2{}+{\mathit {h}}\nu _{uv}->2O}}}

    {\displaystyle {\ce {O + O2 <-> O3}}}

    About 90 percent of the ozone in the atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 20 and 40 kilometres (66,000 and 131,000 ft), where they range from about 2 to 8 parts per million. If all of the ozone were compressed to the pressure of the air at sea level, it would be only 3 millimetres (1⁄8 inch) thick.[6]

    Ultraviolet light

    UV-B energy levels at several altitudes. Blue line shows DNA sensitivity. Red line shows surface energy level with 10 percent decrease in ozone

    Levels of ozone at various altitudes and blocking of different bands of ultraviolet radiation. Essentially all UV-C (100–280 nm) is blocked by dioxygen (from 100–200 nm) or else by ozone (200–280 nm) in the atmosphere. The shorter portion of the UV-C band and the more energetic UV above this band causes the formation of the ozone layer, when single oxygen atoms produced by UV photolysis of dioxygen (below 240 nm) react with more dioxygen. The ozone layer also blocks most, but not quite all, of the sunburn-producing UV-B (280–315 nm) band, which lies in the wavelengths longer than UV-C. The band of UV closest to visible light, UV-A (315–400 nm), is hardly affected by ozone, and most of it reaches the ground. UV-A does not primarily cause skin reddening, but there is evidence that it causes long-term skin damage.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    The ozone layer absorbs radiation of wavelengths

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ The ozone layer absorbs radiation of wavelengths

    Question

    The ozone layer absorbs radiation of wavelengths

    Aless than 3×10

    −7 m

    Bmore than 3×10

    −7 m

    Cless than 3×10

    −5 m

    Dmore than 3×10

    −5 m Easy Open in App

    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    The ozone layer absorbs radiation of wavelength beginalign class 11 physics CBSE

    The ozone layer absorbs radiation of wavelength beginalign A less than 3times 107m B more than 3times 107m C less than 3times 105m D more than 3times 105m endalign

    The ozone layer absorbs radiation of wavelength

    A. less than 3× 10 −7 m B. more than 3× 10 −7 m C. less than 3× 10 −5 m D. more than 3× 10 −5 m

    A. less than 3×10−7mB. more than 3×10−7mC. less than 3×10−5mD. more than 3×10−5m

    Answer Verified 213.9k+ views

    Hint: Ozone layers is a layer which is found in earth’s stratosphere, its role is to absorb the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. It absorbs up to 99% of the sun’s medium frequency UV radiation. The ultraviolet region lies between X-rays and the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.Complete answer:

    The ozone layer is a layer of

    O 3 O3

    which shields us from the harmful radiation if ozone layer wasn’t there then the radiation from the sun would have damage and affects the life which are exposed to it.

    The ultraviolet region has a wavelength range of 100-400nm and the ozone layer absorbs the radiation medium frequency of UV or medium wavelength i.e. nearly from 200nm to 300nm.

    As 1nm= 10 −9 m 1nm=10−9m

    , we can say that the ozone layer absorbs radiation of wavelength less than

    less than 3× 10 −7 m less than 3×10−7m

    , converting 300nm in metres.

    Hence, the correct option is A.Additional information:

    The Ozone layer was discovered by Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson in 1913. They studied the radiation coming from the sun’s surface and the radiation which was being received by the earth’s ground and that is when they figured out that there was no radiation below 312nm. From this they concluded that there was some layer which was absorbing the radiation coming from the sun.

    Note: Conversion of unit should be done properly, here the options are given in metres and the wavelength are usually given in nanometre and there are two options which have different powers one can mistakenly take C as the correct option if they don’t know conversion. Precisely, an ozone layer absorbs radiation from 200nm to 315nm.

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    स्रोत : www.vedantu.com

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