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    There were various factors that promoted the growth of Nationalism in India in the 19th century. Give the meaning of'Nationalism' in this context?

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ There were various factors that promoted the growth of Nationalism in India in the 19th century. Give the meaning of'Nationalism' in this context?

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    There were various factors that promoted the growth of Nationalism in India in the 19th century.  Give the meaning of'Nationalism' in this context?

    Nationalism refers to the feeling of oneness that emerges when people living in a common region share the same historical, political, cultural background, speak the same language, have the same cultural values and consider themselves as one nation. The factors which promoted to the growth of nationalism in India were:

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    Economic exploitation, repressive colonial policies, socio-religious reform movements, rediscovery of India's past, influence of western education, role of the press and development of rapid means of transport and communication.

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    The Growth of Indian Nationalism: SEBA class 9 History chapter 2 notes

    Notes/solutions/answers to the questions for history chapter 2 The Growth of Indian Nationalism of class 9 for students studying under SEBA.

    The Growth of Indian Nationalism

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    Here are the notes/solutions/answers to the questions for history chapter 2 The Growth of Indian Nationalism of class 9 for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA). However, these solutions can be modified/changed according to needs as these are only for references.

    INTRODUCTION: The Mughal Empire started disintegrating after the death of Aurangzeb (1658-1709), Taking advantage of the situation the English East India Company started interfering in the politics of India and by a gradual process established their undisputed sway over the whole of India, Trade interests necessitated political control. Within a short span of time, the East India Company transformed itself from a mere trading body to a paramount political power. The defeat of Siraj-ud-daulah, the Nawab of Bengal in the battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of British political control over India, just a hundred years later in 1857, the people of India rose in revolt against the British rule.

    The Revolt of 1857 was, to a great extent, a bid of the Indians for political freedom. The rebels wanted to drive away from the British from India and make Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II their actual ruler. Though the revolt failed, its results were far-reaching. The revolt of 1857 marked the beginning of the national awakening in India.

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    Short Answers Questions

    1. What was the main factor responsible for the growth of Indian Nationalism?Answer: The Revolt of 1857 was the main factor responsible for the growth of Indian Nationalism.2. Who was the writer of ‘Anandamath’?Answer: The writer of Anandamathwas Shri Bakim Chandra Chatterjee.3. Who composed the song Sare Jahan Se Achha?Answer: Iqbal composed the song Sare Jahan Se Achha.

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    8. Mention two important social reforms of Lord William Bentinck.Answer: The two important social reforms of Lord William Bentinck are to abolish Sati permanently and suppressing female infanticide.9. Name the first newspaper published in India.Answer: The first newspaper published in India was Bengal Gazette.

    Long Answer Questions

    1. Write briefly how the Revolt of 1857 led to the growth of Indian Nationalism.Answer: The Revolt of 1857 was to a great extent, a bid of the Indians for political freedom. The rebels wanted to drive away from the British from India and make Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II their actual ruler. Though this revolt failed its results were far-reaching. The Revolt of 1857 marked the beginning of the National awakening in India. British administration introduced into India Western education and learning. Western education aroused among the Indians a new spirit of awakening. Reason replaced blind faith and a change in outlook took place. They not only acquired the capability to judge the exploitative nature of the foreign rule but at the same time developing a sense of responsibility towards their society race and country. This new consciousness gave birth to a new India in the nineteenth century just as a new Europe was born as a result of the Renaissance during the sixteenth century.2. Write the main objectives of ‘Wood’s Despatch.’Answer: In 1854, Sir Charles Wood, President of the Board of Control presented the first comprehensive plan for the spread of the modern system of education in India. The Wood’s Despatch presented a systematic educational hierarchy from primary through high school and college to university. He encouraged vernacular at the school level and English at the university level. Scholarships were to be presented to meritorious students by the government. A system of grant-in-aid was laid down to encourage the growth in a number of educational institutions. Wood also recommended the establishment of the Education Department in all the provinces. The British administrators had conceived this new system of education to create a permanent class of humble, subservient Indians, always ready to serve the interest of the British administration.3. Write about six important reasons for the growth of Indian Nationalism.Answer: The six important reasons for the growth of Indian Nationalism were:

    i. The influence of western education was a potent factor for the birth of Indian nationalism. The British opened the gates of Western education to the Indians which strengthened the Indian minds to face the challenges of British imperialism.

    ii. The development of the modern means of transport and communication, like roads, railways, post and telegraph services helped in the growth of nationalism. The modern means of communication broke the isolation and forged a link between the people living in distant areas.

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    Factors responsible for Growth of Indian Nationalism

    ADVERTISEMENTS: The British rule in India was at its strongest grip between 1858 and 1905. England had become the centre of an empire that included one quarter of the world area and population. India became the most valuable possession. During this period, a current of national feeling was generated in the minds of the people. […]

    Factors responsible for Growth of Indian Nationalism

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    The British rule in India was at its strongest grip between 1858 and 1905. England had become the centre of an empire that included one quarter of the world area and population.

    India became the most valuable possession. During this period, a current of national feeling was generated in the minds of the people.

    The completeness of the Britain’s empire helped generate the flow of national consciousness.

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    After the establishment of a common administration by the British, Indians could inhale the fragrance of unity and nationalism —a concept new to India in its modern perspective. The very concept of nationalism arose to meet the challenge of the foreign rule. It was, however, during the dark period of India’s history, when the Indians failed miserably to accumulate strength against the mighty-power in the great Indian revolt, India saw the dawn of a new era.

    The idea of nationhood grew stronger. A certain dislike was felt even by the great admirers of the British achievements. The process was very slow but the undercurrent elements cumulatively led to the politicization of certain groups and ultimately created an arena of nationalist politics in India.

    Social Unity for Indian Nationalism:

    Since the earliest past, the sages and seers of India accepted the whole country as the common motherland of all people. From Himalayas down to the seas they gave one name to the country Bharatavarsha. The people were described as Bharati santati or children of Bharata. There remained many ancient kingdoms within the geographical boundaries of India yet the people were taught by their non-heritage to regard the whole land as one.

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    Religion always plays a significant role in shaping the social unity. Likewise Indians developed the sense of love to their motherland through religious beliefs. The mountains like Himalaya, the rivers like the Ganga, Yamuna and Godavari were regarded as sacred and holy. Places of pilgrimage were situated within the boundaries of this holy land. People went to these places through ages far outside their local kingdoms.

    Social customs attached with religious sentiments took common shape all over India. In habit and manner Indians exposed the feelings of oneness always. Thus the traditional Indian society projected the background of unity for the rise of nationalism.

    The social unity became viable through the economic life of the people. The improvement in the means of transport and communication also quickened the process of social unity. The woolen goods of Kashmir and Punjab, the silk sarees of Banaras and Mysore were required by the people everywhere. Local products of special attraction found wide markets all over the country.

    Every region of India depended on other regions for these types of goods that prompted an Indian for a better social understanding. This fellow-felineness was exhibited during the darkest period of the British rule when millions and millions of people died of famine. Food-grains of surplus region were supplied to the areas of distress without any hesitation. Closer economic relations thus developed a greater sense of social unity that ultimately resulted in the national unity.

    Cultural Unity for Indian Nationalism:

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    India to her credit possessed one of the oldest civilizations of mankind. Her history has maintained the continuity through ages. The cultural heritage endowed with the richness in literature, philosophy, art and architecture enabled India to occupy a unique place in the history of civilized races.

    Indians felt proud to remember their ancestors like Valmiki, Vyasa, Buddha, Mahavir, Kautilya, Asoka, Kalidasa, Harsha, Kharavela and many others. Similarly the Vedas and the puranas, epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata worked as supreme lessons to every Indian throughout the length and breadth of India.

    Countless temples and other movements reminded the people of their glorious past. These elements of a rich cultural heritage inspired everyone to be very proud of their motherland.

    During 19th century, eminent scholars depicted the real picture of India. Many forgotten chapters of the past came to light, that Buddha was the light of Asia, that Chandragupta Mauraya defeated the Greeks, that Asoka was the greatest monarch of human history and that Akbar the great was cosmopolitan in his religious outlook, created a sense of pride in the minds of the educated Indians who ultimately tuned the social unity into Indian nationalism.

    The youthful patriots began to wonder how their great country was ruled by the inhabitants of that small Island who had nothing to be proud of except their sharp edged sword of divide and rule. The discovery of the lost and forgotten places of art and architecture naturally enriched the pride of the nation that provided the very concept of modern Indian nationalism.

    No doubt, India was a vast sub-continent yet the people used a common language at all times. Three hundred years before the Christian era the Prakrit language served the purpose of a linguistic unity. Sanskrit became the common language of the learned class everywhere and gradually Sanskrit remained the mother of all languages in India.

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