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    where in singapore subhash chandra bose proclaimed azad hind government

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    { Indian National Army : Provisional Government of Azad Hind }

    Declaring its Formation

    On 21 October 1943, Bose announced the formation of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind (Free India), with himself as the Head of State, Prime Minister and Minister of War.

    The Provisional Government not only enabled Bose to negotiate with the Japanese on an equal footing but also facilitated the mobilisation of Indians in East Asia to join and support the INA. Soon after the announcement, the Provisional Government received recognition from various countries.

    Bose announcing the Proclamation of the formation of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind at Cathay Building, 21 October 1943.

    Members of the Cabinet:

    Lt Col A C Chatterjee Minister of Finance

    Dr (Capt) Lakshmi Sahgal Minister of Women’s Organisation

    Shri A M Sahay Secretary with Ministerial Rank

    Shri S A Ayer Minister of Publicity and Propaganda

    Lt Col J K Bhonsle Representative of INA

    Lt Col Loganathan Representative of INA

    Lt Col Ehsan Qadir Representative of INA

    Lt Col N S Bhagat Representative of INA

    Lt Col M Z Kiani Representative of INA

    Lt Col Aziz Ahmed Representative of INA

    Lt Col Shah Nawaz Khan Representative of INA

    Lt Col Gulzara Singh Representative of INA

    Rash Behari Bose Supreme Advisor

    Karim Giani Advisor from Burma

    Debnath Das Advisor from Thailand

    Sardar Ishar Singh Advisor from Thailand

    D M Khan Advisor from Hong Kong

    A Yellappa Advisor from Singapore

    A N Sarkar Advisor from Singapore

    Cabinet members of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind, 1943:

    1st Row (L to R): Lt Col Chatterjee, Lt Col J K Bhonsle, Dr Lakshmi, Chandra Bose, A M Sahay and S A Ayer.

    2nd Row (L to R): Lt Col Gulzara Singh, Lt Col Shah Nawaz Khan, Lt Col Aziz Ahmed, Lt Col M Z Kiani, Lt Col N S Bhagat, Lt Col Ehsan Qadir, Lt Col Loganathan.

    “Total Mobilisation”

    “Time has come for three million Indians living in East Asia to mobilise all their available resources including money and manpower. Half-hearted measures will not do. …Out of this total mobilisation I expect at least three hundred thousand soldiers and three crores that is thirty million dollars.”

    Subhas Chandra Bose speaking at the Padang on 9 July 1943.

    With the formation of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind, mobilisation of the Indian communities for armed struggle was stepped up. Many Indian civilians from Malaya, Thailand and Burma responded enthusiastically. Others contributed money and gold generously to the INA Fund. The gold came mostly from women who readily gave up their jewellery while wealthy Indian families donated large sums of money after attending Bose’s rallies and meetings. Other forms of contributions included clothing, foodstuffs and other supplies that the INA could use.

    By April 1944, the Azad Hind Bank was established in Rangoon to manage the overwhelming donations from the Indian communities.

    On 5 August 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose addressed the INA soldiers at the Padang. He questioned if they felt “Jai Hind” and “Chalo Dhili” as part of them as the slogans were part of himself. The response of the soldiers was overwhelming and electrifying.

    Military inspection of the INA, 1943.

    Previous : Revival

    स्रोत : www.nas.gov.sg

    Indian National Army in Singapore

    Indian National Army in Singapore

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    See also: Indian National Army

    The Indian National Army (INA) was an Indian military wing in Southeast Asia during the World War II, particularly active in Singapore,[1] that was officially formed in April 1942 and disbanded in August 1945.[2][1][3] It was formed with the help of the Japanese forces and was made up of roughly about 45 000 Indian prisoner of war (POWs) of British Indian Army, who were captured after the fall of Singapore on 15 February 1942.[1] It was initially formed by Rash Behari Bose who headed it till April 1942 before handing the lead of INA over to Subhas Chandra Bose in 1943.[2][4][1]

    INA was involved in various military operations fighting alongside the Japanese forces and against the British and Allied forces. They are notable for their contributions to the battle fought in Burma, Imphal and Kohima.[2]

    Following the defeat of the Japanese, the INA was dissolved in August 1945. However, its effects continued to be felt in the Indian Independence Movement. Some scholars believe that the INA acted as a catalyst for the Indian Independence movement.[5] During the INA trials in 1945 and 1946, the nationalistic sentiments aroused by the INA led to the various mutinies in the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) and Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF). Similarly, political parties such as the Indian National Congress have been said to have appropriated the legacy of the INA in order to gain political favour with the general population.[6]

    Contents

    1 Background and Context

    1.1 Independence movements in India 1920s and 1930s

    1.1.1 Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement

    1.2 Pre-1942 Conditions in Singapore and Malaya

    1.3 The Role of the Japanese in the formation of the INA

    2 Establishing the INA

    2.1 The Farrer Park Meeting

    2.2 Treatment of the Indians under the Early Japanese Rule

    2.3 Pledging Allegiance to the INA

    2.3.1 First Indian National Army formed by General Mohan Singh

    2.3.2 Arrival of Bose and formation of INA

    3 21 October 1943: proclamation of Free India at Cathay Building in Singapore

    4 Leaders of the INA

    4.1 Mohan Singh

    4.2 Subhas Chandra Bose (Netaji)

    5 Decline of the INA

    5.1 Loss of motivation

    5.2 Acceptance of Defeat

    5.3 Aftermath of the Japanese Occupation in Singapore

    6 Long-term significance of the Indian National Army

    6.1 Effects on the Indian Army (after 1945)

    6.2 Changes by the British colonial administration

    6.3 Contributions to the Indian nationalist movements

    7 Memory of the INA in Singapore History

    7.1 Monuments and important places

    7.2 Deliberate lack of prominence in Singapore Government's official narrative

    8 See also 9 References 10 Notes

    Background and Context[edit]

    Independence movements in India 1920s and 1930s[edit]

    There were a number of Independence movements occurring in India during the 1920s and 1930s which played a huge role in shaping the ideology behind the formation of the INA.

    Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement[edit]

    One of the more significant independent movements which brought together hundreds of thousands of Indians was Mohandas Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement between 1920 and 1922 which aimed to reject British rule through non-violent means such as boycotting British products and consuming only local products.[7] This movement also strengthened nationalistic feelings amongst the Indian population both in India as well as other parts of the world. As a result of this movement Gandhi was arrested and he spent two years in jail.[7] However, the effects of this movement were far reaching as it spurred the emergence of a newer generation of Indians from the Congress Party such as, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari and Subhas Chandra Bose (who would eventually become the leader of the INA) who would later on actively advocate for India's independence.[8]

    Pre-1942 Conditions in Singapore and Malaya[edit]

    See also: Battle of Singapore and Malayan campaign

    In 1941, with the impending arrival of the Japanese troops to the Malay Peninsula during the World War II, the British government had begun sending a large number of Indian troops to the Malay Peninsular and Singapore.[1] It was estimated that were some 37 000 Indian troops stationed in these areas, making up roughly about the 40 percent of the total military strength of the British forces.[1] However, the British-Indian troops stationed begun to experience various problems.

    Firstly, the British military was beginning to be spread too thinly and they were unable to allocate much of their resources to the military set up in the Malay Peninsula and Singapore.[1] Secondly, although it appears that the number British-Indian troops swelled from 200,000 to 900,000 between 1939 and 1941, it was made up of very young boys (as a result of the open recruitment policy of the British) who had very little or no combat training and experience, leading to anxiety amongst the British-Indian forces.[9][1]

    Thirdly, the British had already begun to suspect that not all of their Indian Army personnel were loyal to them. This was largely because, towards the end of 1942, the British government had to resort to indiscriminate recruitment in order to maintain the numbers for its army, meaning that it was no longer carefully curating its selection for the armed forces and consequently the British Indian Army was no longer filled with single minded individuals fighting for the same cause. The antagonistic feeling towards the British amongst the Indian soldiers were due to numerous instances of poor treatment they received. By 1941, significant discontent at the abusive attitudes of their British officers was widespread among Indian soldiers.[1]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    On 21 October 1943, Netaji Subhash had announced the formation of the Azad Hind Government

    On October 21, 1943, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose announced the formation of the 'Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind' or the provincial government of free India in Singapore and had declared war on the British Empire. | OpIndia News

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    Updated: 21 October, 2020

    21 October 1943: Netaji Subhash had formed the Azad Hind Government, India’s ‘declaration of independence’

    The existence of the Azad Hind Government had given India's independence struggle a greater legitimacy. The brave actions of Subash Chandra Bose and his decision to set up the country's first government had directly or indirectly triggered a chain of events that eventually forced the British government to leave India in August 1947.

    21 October, 2020 Shashank Bharadwaj

    Formation of Azad Hind Government by Subash Chandra government/ Image Source: Deep Green Resistance News Service

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    Today, Oct the 77th anniversary of the formation of the first Indian government. In 1943, on October 21, one of India’s greatest sons – Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose announced the formation of the ‘Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind’ or the provincial government of free India in Singapore and declared war on the British Empire.

    Subash Chandra Bose had launched a struggle to free India from British rule by forming the provisional government-in-exile during the latter part of the Second World War. Bose was convinced that it was armed struggle that would help the countrymen to achieve independence.

    The leadership of Bose pulled Indians, who united with thousands of soldiers, along with former-prisoners and other expatriates who were living in Malayasia and Burma.

    Under the provisional Government, Bose was the Head of State, Prime Minister and Minister of War. Captain Lakshmi headed the women’s organisation while SA Ayer headed the publicity wing in the newly-formed government. Revolutionary leader Ras Behari Bose was designated as the supreme adviser by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. The government was supported by the Axis powers of Imperial Japan, Nazi Germany, the Italian Social Republic, and their allies.

    How was it set up?

    The struggle for independence was carried on by Subhash Chandra Bose from abroad. The outbreak of the Second World War provided a good opportunity to Bose to strike a blow against the British imperialists. Bose, who was put on house arrest in 1940 managed to escape to Berlin on March 28, 1941.

    The Indian community in German helped Bose to set up the Indian Independence League in 1942. The league took a decision to form the Indian National Army (INA) for the liberation of India.

    On June 13, 1943, Bose arrived in Singapore on the invitation of Ras Bihari Bose. Netaji Bose was appointed as the head of the Indian Independence League and was also designated as the leader of the INA or ‘Azad Hind Fauj’. Bose gave his famous battle cry ‘Chalo Dilli’ and promised independence to Indians saying, “Tum mujhe khoon do, main tumhe Azadi dunga’ (You give me blood, I will give you freedom).

    Significance of the Azad Hind government

    Soon after the formation of the government, the Azad Hind government proclaimed authority over Indian civilian and military personnel in Southeast Asian British colonial territory and prospective authority over Indian territory to fall to the Japanese forces and the Indian National Army during the Second World War.

    The provisional government not only enabled Bose to negotiate with the Japanese on an equal footing but also allowed him to the mobilise Indians living in East Asia to join and support the Indian National Army (INA). The Azad Hind Fauj or the Indian National Army (INA) played an extremely important role during the national movement by providing a much-needed impetus to India’s struggle for Independence.

    The Azad Hind government under Bose had in fact started its own bank, currency, civil code and stamps. Bose had even formed the first women regiment of the INA – Rani Jhansi Regiment, thus laying down the foundation for equal opportunity for women in armed forces.

    Immediately after the formation of the government-in-exile, Azad Hind declared war against the Britishers and allied forces on the Indo-Burma Front. The Azad Hind Fauj also fought against the British Indian Army and the allied forces as part of the Imperial Japanese Army in the Imphal-Kohima sector.

    The existence of the Azad Hind Government had given India’s independence struggle against the British a greater legitimacy. The brave actions of Subash Chandra Bose and his decision to set up the country’s first government had directly or indirectly triggered a chain of events that eventually forced the British government to leave India in August 1947.

    The actions of INA, Azad Hind Govt had triggered events that resulted in India’s independence

    The historical accounts especially noted down by the governors of the various provinces, the Intelligence Bureau, as mentioned in teb book Netaji: India’s Independence and British Archives, written by Kalyan Kumar De, points out that by the mid-1940s, the British had already gone into panic and were threatened because of the tremendous popularity of Subhas Chandra Bose and the nationwide appreciation.

    As mentioned in the article by The New India Express, the sympathy for the INA that Subhash Chandra Bose had established to militarily oust the colonial power had created a havoc in the minds of the British, who understood that it was impossible for them to rule India anymore. The heroic actions of Bose and had triggered a naval mutiny in Bombay and several other stations, along with rebellions in some army camps, including Madras and Poona.

    स्रोत : www.opindia.com

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