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    Types of Operating Systems

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    Types of Operating Systems

    Difficulty Level : Easy

    Last Updated : 21 Sep, 2021

    An Operating System performs all the basic tasks like managing files, processes, and memory. Thus operating system acts as the manager of all the resources, i.e. resource manager. Thus, the operating system becomes an interface between user and machine.

    Types of Operating Systems: Some widely used operating systems are as follows-1. Batch Operating System –

    This type of operating system does not interact with the computer directly. There is an operator which takes similar jobs having the same requirement and group them into batches. It is the responsibility of the operator to sort jobs with similar needs.

    Advantages of Batch Operating System:

    It is very difficult to guess or know the time required for any job to complete. Processors of the batch systems know how long the job would be when it is in queue

    Multiple users can share the batch systems

    The idle time for the batch system is very less

    It is easy to manage large work repeatedly in batch systems

    Disadvantages of Batch Operating System:

    The computer operators should be well known with batch systems

    Batch systems are hard to debug

    It is sometimes costly

    The other jobs will have to wait for an unknown time if any job fails

    Examples of Batch based Operating System: Payroll System, Bank Statements, etc.2. Time-Sharing Operating Systems –

    Each task is given some time to execute so that all the tasks work smoothly. Each user gets the time of CPU as they use a single system. These systems are also known as Multitasking Systems. The task can be from a single user or different users also. The time that each task gets to execute is called quantum. After this time interval is over OS switches over to the next task.

    Advantages of Time-Sharing OS: 

    Each task gets an equal opportunity

    Fewer chances of duplication of software

    CPU idle time can be reduced

    Disadvantages of Time-Sharing OS:

    Reliability problem

    One must have to take care of the security and integrity of user programs and data

    Data communication problem

    Examples of Time-Sharing OSs are: Multics, Unix, etc.3. Distributed Operating System –

    These types of the operating system is a recent advancement in the world of computer technology and are being widely accepted all over the world and, that too, with a great pace. Various autonomous interconnected computers communicate with each other using a shared communication network. Independent systems possess their own memory unit and CPU. These are referred to as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. These system’s processors differ in size and function. The major benefit of working with these types of the operating system is that it is always possible that one user can access the files or software which are not actually present on his system but some other system connected within this network i.e., remote access is enabled within the devices connected in that network.

    Advantages of Distributed Operating System:

    Failure of one will not affect the other network communication, as all systems are independent from each other

    Electronic mail increases the data exchange speed

    Since resources are being shared, computation is highly fast and durable

    Load on host computer reduces

    These systems are easily scalable as many systems can be easily added to the network

    Delay in data processing reduces

    Disadvantages of Distributed Operating System:

    Failure of the main network will stop the entire communication

    To establish distributed systems the language which is used are not well defined yet

    These types of systems are not readily available as they are very expensive. Not only that the underlying software is highly complex and not understood well yet

    Examples of Distributed Operating System are- LOCUS, etc.4. Network Operating System –

    These systems run on a server and provide the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. These types of operating systems allow shared access of files, printers, security, applications, and other networking functions over a small private network. One more important aspect of Network Operating Systems is that all the users are well aware of the underlying configuration, of all other users within the network, their individual connections, etc. and that’s why these computers are popularly known as tightly coupled systems.

    Advantages of Network Operating System:

    Highly stable centralized servers

    Security concerns are handled through servers

    स्रोत : www.geeksforgeeks.org

    What are the types of an Operating System?

    In this blog, we will learn about the various types of an Operating System. We will learn about Batch OS, Time-Sharing OS, Distributed OS, Embedded OS, and Real-time OS.

    What are the types of an Operating System?

    In the previous blog i.e. "What is an Operating System and what are the goals and functions of an Operating System?", we saw what an Operating System is and what are its goal and functions. We saw that an Operating System is a software that acts as an intermediate between the user and the hardware components of the system. The Operating System is responsible for managing various resources of the system. Now, in this blog, we will see what are the different types of an Operating System. So, let's get started.

    1. Batch Operating System

    In a Batch Operating System, the similar jobs are grouped together into batches with the help of some operator and these batches are executed one by one. For example, let us assume that we have 10 programs that need to be executed. Some programs are written in C++, some in C and rest in Java. Now, every time when we run these programmes individually then we will have to load the compiler of that particular language and then execute the code. But what if we make a batch of these 10 programmes. The benefit with this approach is that, for the C++ batch, you need to load the compiler only once. Similarly, for Java and C, the compiler needs to be loaded only once and the whole batch gets executed. The following image describes the working of a Batch Operating System.

    Advantages:

    The overall time taken by the system to execute all the programmes will be reduced.

    The Batch Operating System can be shared between multiple users.

    Disadvantages:

    Manual interventions are required between two batches.

    The CPU utilization is low because the time taken in loading and unloading of batches is very high as compared to execution time.

    2. Time-Sharing Operating System

    In a Multi-tasking Operating System, more than one processes are being executed at a particular time with the help of the time-sharing concept. So, in the time-sharing environment, we decide a time that is called time quantum and when the process starts its execution then the execution continues for only that amount of time and after that, other processes will be given chance for that amount of time only. In the next cycle, the first process will again come for its execution and it will be executed for that time quantum only and again next process will come. This process will continue. The following image describes the working of a Time-Sharing Operating System.

    Advantages:

    Since equal time quantum is given to each process, so each process gets equal opportunity to execute.

    The CPU will be busy in most of the cases and this is good to have case.

    Disadvantages:

    Process having higher priority will not get the chance to be executed first because the equal opportunity is given to each process.

    3. Distributed Operating System

    In a Distributed Operating System, we have various systems and all these systems have their own CPU, main memory, secondary memory, and resources. These systems are connected to each other using a shared communication network. Here, each system can perform its task individually. The best part about these Distributed Operating System is remote access i.e. one user can access the data of the other system and can work accordingly. So, remote access is possible in these distributed Operating Systems. The following image shows the working of a Distributed Operating System.

    Advantages:

    Since the systems are connected with each other so, the failure of one system can't stop the execution of processes because other systems can do the execution.

    Resources are shared between each other.

    The load on the host computer gets distributed and this, in turn, increases the efficiency.

    Disadvantages:

    Since the data is shared among all the computers, so to make the data secure and accessible to few computers, you need to put some extra efforts.

    If there is a problem in the communication network then the whole communication will be broken.

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    4. Embedded Operating System

    An Embedded Operating System is designed to perform a specific task for a particular device which is not a computer. For example, the software used in elevators is dedicated to the working of elevators only and nothing else. So, this can be an example of Embedded Operating System. The Embedded Operating System allows the access of device hardware to the software that is running on the top of the Operating System.

    स्रोत : afteracademy.com

    6 Types of Operating Systems (With Functions and Examples)

    Learn what an operating system is, discover its functions and features and explore the different types of operating systems most commonly used.

    6 Types of Operating Systems (With Functions and Examples)

    By Indeed Editorial Team

    Updated May 18, 2022

    Published June 22, 2021

    The Indeed Editorial Team comprises a diverse and talented team of writers, researchers and subject matter experts equipped with Indeed's data and insights to deliver useful tips to help guide your career journey.

    Every computer, smartphone or similar electronic device comes with special software called an operating system. An operating system, also known as an OS, is the engine behind the utility value of computers and smartphones. There are different types of operating systems depending on the device, manufacturer and user preference, and if you work—or want to work—in the information technology field, it's important to understand them.

    In this article, we discuss what operating systems are, explain why they're important and explore the different types of operating systems in use today.

    Key takeaways:

    An operating system is the software that supports and manages all the programs and applications used by a computer or mobile device.

    An operating system uses a graphic user interface (GUI), a combination of graphics and text, that allows you to interact with the computer or device.

    Every computer or smart device needs at least one operating system to run applications and perform tasks.

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    What are operating systems?

    An operating system is a type of software interface between the user and the device hardware. It allows users to communicate with the device and perform the desired functions.

    Operating systems use two components to manage computer programs and applications. The kernel is the core inner component that processes data at the hardware level. It handles input-output management, memory and process management. The shell is the outer layer that manages the interaction between the user and the OS. The shell communicates with the operating system by either taking the input from the user or a shell script. A shell script is a sequence of system commands that are stored in a file.

    Basic functions of an operating system include:

    Booting: An operating system manages the startup of a device.

    Memory management: An operating system coordinates computer applications and allocates space to different programs installed in the computer.

    Data security: An operating system protects your data from cyberattacks.

    Loading and execution: An operating system starts and executes a program.

    Drive/disk management: An operating system manages computer drives and divides disks.

    Device control: An operating system enables you to allow or block access to devices.

    User interface: This part of an operating system, also known as UI, allows users to enter and receive information.

    Process management: The operating system allocates space to enable computer processes, such as storing and sharing information.

    Most operating systems come pre-installed on the device. However, users can change their OS or upgrade to a newer version of the operating system for better device performance.

    Related: Learn About Being a CIO (Chief Information Officer)

    Why is it important to know about operating systems?

    Knowledge of operating systems is important for the following reasons:

    It allows you to understand the inner workings of a device.

    It enables you to fix minor issues with the device.

    It allows you to improve your coding skills.

    It allows you to determine what operating system is best for you.

    Learning about operating systems and improving your understanding of computer technology isn't just for computer enthusiasts—these are important skills for all computer users.

    Related: Computer Skills: Definitions and Examples

    Types of operating systems

    Here are the different types of operating systems you need to know:

    Batch operating systems

    The batch operating system does not have a direct link with the computer. A different system divides and allocates similar tasks into batches for easy processing and faster response. The batch operating system is appropriate for lengthy and time-consuming tasks. To avoid slowing down a device, each user prepares their tasks offline and submits them to an operator. Advantages of using a batch operating system include:

    Many users can share batch systems.

    There is little idle time for batch operating systems.

    It becomes possible to manage large workloads.

    It's easy to estimate how long a task will take to be completed.

    Some notable disadvantages are:

    Batch operating systems are challenging to debug.

    Any failure of the system creates a backlog.

    It may be costly to install and maintain good batch operating systems.

    Batch operating systems are used for tasks such as managing payroll systems, data entry and bank statements.

    Related: What Is a Transaction Processing System (TPS)?

    Time-sharing or multitasking operating systems

    The time-sharing operating system, also known as a multitasking OS, works by allocating time to a particular task and switching between tasks frequently. Unlike the batch system, the time-sharing system allows users to complete their work in the system simultaneously. It allows many users to be distributed across various terminals to minimize response time. Potential advantages of time-sharing operating systems include:

    स्रोत : www.indeed.com

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