which city of the mauryan empire was on the route from north to south india
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"Maurya" redirects here. For the 2004 film, see Maurya (film).
For the Rajput clan, see Mori Rajputs.
Maurya Empire 322 BCE – 184 BCE
Maximum extent of the Maurya Empire, as shown by the location of Ashoka's inscriptions, and visualized by historians: Vincent Arthur Smith; R. C. Majumdar; and historical geographer Joseph E. Schwartzberg.
Territories of the Maurya Empire conceptualized as core areas or linear networks separated by large autonomous regions in the works of scholars such as: historians Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund; Burton Stein; David Ludden; and Romila Thapar; anthropologists Monica L. Smith and Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah; archaeologist Robin Coningham; and historical demographer Tim Dyson.
(Present-day Patna, Bihar)
Common languages Magadhi Prakrit (vernacular)
Jainism Buddhism Ajivikism Greek polytheism
Government Absolute monarchy, as described in Kautilya's
and Rajamandala Samrat • 322–298 BCE Chandragupta • 298–272 BCE Bindusara • 268–232 BCE Ashoka • 232–224 BCE Dasharatha • 224–215 BCE Samprati • 215–202 BCE Shalishuka • 202–195 BCE Devavarman • 195–187 BCE Shatadhanvan • 187–184 BCE Brihadratha
Historical era Iron Age
• Conquest of the Nanda Empire
• Assassination of Brihadratha by Pushyamitra Shunga
184 BCE Area 261 BCE
(low-end estimate of peak area) 3,400,000 km2 (1,300,000 sq mi)
(high-end estimate of peak area) 5,000,000 km2 (1,900,000 sq mi)
Currency PanasPreceded by Succeeded by
Mahajanapadas Nanda Empire Shunga Empire Satavahana dynasty
Indo-Scythians Indo-Greek Kingdom
Vidarbha kingdom (Mauryan era)
Maurya Empire (322–180 BCE)
Chandragupta 322–297 BCE
Bindusara 297–272/268 BCE
Ashoka 272/268–232 BCE
Dasharatha 232–224 BCE
Samprati 224–215 BCE
Shalishuka 215–202 BCE
Devavarman 202–195 BCE
Shatadhanvan 195–187 BCE
Brihadratha 187–180 BCE
v t e
The Maurya Empire, or the Mauryan Empire, was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power on the Indian subcontinent based in Magadha, having been founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BCE, and existing in loose-knit fashion until 185 BCE. The Maurya Empire was centralized by the conquest of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and its capital city was located at Pataliputra (modern Patna). Outside this imperial center, the empire's geographical extent was dependent on the loyalty of military commanders who controlled the armed cities sprinkling it. During Ashoka's rule (ca. 268–232 BCE) the empire briefly controlled the major urban hubs and arteries of the Indian subcontinent except those in the deep south. It declined for about 50 years after Ashoka's rule, and dissolved in 185 BCE with the assassination of Brihadratha by Pushyamitra Shunga and the foundation of the Shunga Empire in Magadha.
Chandragupta Maurya raised an army, with the assistance of Chanakya, his teacher and the author of Arthashastra, and overthrew the Nanda Empire, in c. 322 BCE thus laying the foundation for the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India by defeating the satraps left by Alexander the Great, and by 317 BCE the empire had fully occupied northwestern India. The Mauryan Empire then defeated Seleucus I Nicator, a diadochus and founder of the Seleucid Empire, during the Seleucid–Mauryan war, thus acquiring territory west of the Indus River, Afghanistan and Balochistan.
Under the Mauryas, internal and external trade, agriculture, and economic activities thrived and expanded across South Asia due to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance, administration, and security. The Maurya dynasty built a precursor of the Grand Trunk Road from Pataliputra to Taxila. After the Kalinga War, the Empire experienced nearly half a century of centralized rule under Ashoka. Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism and sponsorship of Buddhist missionaries allowed for the expansion of that faith into Sri Lanka, northwest India, and Central Asia.
The population of South Asia during the Mauryan period has been estimated to be between 15 and 30 million. The empire's period of dominion was marked by exceptional creativity in art, architecture, inscriptions and produced texts, but also by the consolidation of caste in the Gangetic plain, and the declining rights of women in the mainstream Indo-Aryan speaking regions of India. Archaeologically, the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). The  and the Edicts of Ashoka are the primary sources of written records of Mauryan times. The Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath is the national emblem of the Republic of India.
[Solved] With reference to the cities of the Mauryan empire, consider
The correct answer is Both 1 and 2. Key Points Taxila- City in Punjab, Pakistan. Lies about 32 km north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi,
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With reference to the cities of the Mauryan empire, consider the following statements:
1. Taxila was a gateway to the northwest, including Central Asia.
2. Ujjain lay on the route from north to south India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
1 only 2 only Both 1 and 2 Neither 1 nor 2
Answer (Detailed Solution Below)
Option 3 : Both 1 and 2
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The correct answer is Both 1 and 2.Key PointsTaxila-
City in Punjab, Pakistan.
Lies about 32 km north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
It was a gateway to the northwest, including Central Asia. So, statement 1 is correct.Ujjain-
An ancient city beside the Shipra River in Madhya Pradesh.Lay on the route from North to South India. So, statement 2 is correct.
An important Hindu pilgrimage destination, known for the centuries-old Mahakaleshwar Temple.
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Mauryan empire, in ancient India, a state centred at Pataliputra (later Patna) near the junction of the Son and Ganges (Ganga) rivers. It lasted from about 321 to 185 bce and was the first empire to encompass most of the Indian subcontinent. The Mauryan empire was an efficient and highly organized autocracy with a standing army and civil service. That bureaucracy and its operation were the model for the Artha-shastra (“The Science of Material Gain”), a work of political economy similar in tone and scope to Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince. In the wake of the death of Alexander the Great
ancient state, India
Written and fact-checked by The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
Last Updated: Article History
Ashoka: empire c. 250 bce
See all media Date: 185 BCE - 321
Key People: Ashoka Chandragupta Chandra Gupta I Chanakya Bindusara
Related Places: India Pakistan Bangladesh Gandhara
See all related content →Mauryan empire, in ancient India, a state centred at Pataliputra (later Patna) near the junction of the Son and Ganges (Ganga) rivers. It lasted from about 321 to 185 BCE and was the first empire to encompass most of the Indian subcontinent.
The Mauryan empire was an efficient and highly organized autocracy with a standing army and civil service. That bureaucracy and its operation were the model for the Artha-shastra (“The Science of Material Gain”), a work of political economy similar in tone and scope to Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince.
History: Fact or Fiction?
In the wake of the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, Chandragupta (or Chandragupta Maurya), founder of the Mauryan dynasty, conquered the Punjab region from the southeastern edges of Alexander’s former empire. The Seleucids, a contending dynasty for Alexander’s legacy, attempted to advance into India in 305 BCE. They were defeated and, after the conclusion of a treaty, the Seleucids and the Mauryans maintained friendly relations. Now enjoying peace along the western border, Chandragupta was free to focus his military exploits to the east and to the south. By the end of his reign, he had extended his empire across northern India. His son, Bindusara, continued the empire’s expansion well into the Deccan, stopping around the region known today as Karnataka.
Bindusara’s son, Ashoka (reigned c. 265–238 BCE or c. 273–232 BCE), added Kalinga to the already vast empire. That addition would be the last, however, as the brutal conquest of that region led Ashoka to abandon military conquest. Rather, he embraced Buddhism and instituted dharma as the state ideology.
Much is known of the reign of this Buddhist Mauryan emperor from the edicts inscribed on exquisitely executed stone pillars that he had erected throughout his realm. Those edicts constitute some of the oldest deciphered original texts of India. After his conversion, his notion of conquest consisted of sending many Buddhist emissaries throughout Asia and commissioning some of the finest works of ancient Indian art.
After Ashoka’s death the empire shrank because of invasions, defections by southern princes, and quarrels over ascension. The last ruler, Brihadratha, was killed in 185 BCE by his Brahman commander in chief, Pushyamitra, who then founded the Shunga dynasty, which ruled in central India for about a century.
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The Editors of Encyclopaedia BritannicaThis article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Zeidan.
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