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    The economics of Khadi

    An article on The economics of Khadi

    The economics of Khadi

    - By Dr. Namita Nimbalkar*

    Introduction

    Gandhian economics cannot be regarded as a distinct subject or discipline. It can at best be regarded as teachings and practices of Mahatma Gandhi. It includes study of all relevant economic activities having a relevance to Indian conditions. These economic activities include production, distribution, consumption, public finance and sarvodaya. The core of the Gandhian economics is the basic principles of truth and non violence. Therefore Gandhian economics refers to all such economic activities undertaken within the framework of truth and non violence and accepted ethical standards in which man is regarded as the central point of the study.

    Features of Gandhian Economics:

    The features of Gandhian economics are many and varied. It is not possible to list them all, let alone explain them in depth. However, the salient features of Gandhian economics are listed below:

    Acceptance of truth and nonviolence as the basic principles of Gandhian economics.

    As against the trend of maximization of wants Gandhian economics intends to achieve the minimisations of wants.

    Instead of utilitarian doctrine, sarvodaya - the welfare of all, is to be regarded as the final goal of man.

    Acceptance of the trusteeship theory of property.

    Achieving self sufficiency at individual, family, village and national level.

    Decentralisation of power and administration, so that real democracy is enjoyed by the people.

    Adopting labour intensive methods and opposing mechanisations in general and in particular labour replacing machineries.

    Manual labour should be recognised as a must and in no way inferior to mental labour.

    Adoption of swadeshi culture in which only the home made goods are used.

    Man should be given top priority. He should be both the means and the end in Gandhian economics.

    Prevalence of khadi and small scale industries which include Home industries, Cottage industries and village industries.

    Adoption of need based consumption so that the genuine needs of the others are also satisfied.

    Conservation of resources.

    Interest of both the individuals and the society should be simultaneously satisfied.

    Man-centered Economics

    The ultimate social order envisioned by the Gandhian economics is the goal of promotion of happiness of all, material as well as non material. The social order comes through general acceptance of higher values of life, subordination of self realisation and integrated development of individual personality.

    Gandhi aims at radical reconstruction of the economy on the basis of need based as opposed to want based activities and thus ensure lasting happiness and social harmony. In a need based economy the vital economic decisions will be made exogenously rather than by the rules of the game of the private enterprise economy where maximisation of private gain and accumulation is the only virtue.

    Gandhi was anxious to cure unemployment and to remove poverty from the rural areas. For this he suggested the growth and development of cottage industries. According to him, maximum effort should be made by the villagers to make themselves self- sufficient in regard to their own needs. He did not like to see the surplus labour in the villages remain idle. Gandhi was interested to provide work and income to the rural population within the villages. The Mahatma preferred self defined work rather than stranger defined work. Gandhi was of the view that the panacea to solve the problems of poverty lies in increasing the opportunities for self defined work.

    Gandhi's approach aims at improving the quality of life rather than attaining material prosperity. According to him wealth and income are the means of human welfare and not an end in themselves. Gandhi held the view that ethical and spiritual values are superior to materialistic greed. Gandhian economics is based on three distinct ethical foundations:-

    Only that economy, which conduces to the good of all, is good,

    ii. All have the same right to earn their livelihood, and

    iii. The life of a labourer, whether the tiller of the soil or the craftsman, is life worth living.

    Base of Gandhian Economics: Truth and Non-violence

    Gandhi tried to introduce two important aspects of Indian philosophy, truth and non violence, as the basis for economic activities for the ultimate human happiness. If the aim of economics is the ultimate happiness of the individuals, these two eternal values have to be integrated into economics for the real happiness of mankind. Gandhi said, "this society must naturally be based on truth and non - violence which in my opinion are not possible without a living belief in God. A recovery of moral and spiritual values can be possible through exercise of non - violence. It encourages an individual to think independently and radically." Far back in 1928 Gandhi warned the yoked Indians against the ills of absence of soul force - lack of moral courage - the courage to think radically, which as a consequence has brought about this deplorable state of affairs.

    Gandhi has not taken truth in its literary meaning; truth is an "actual force on mental life, the kind of force that moves mountains." To Gandhi non-violence is not merely the act of refraining from doing offence, injury and harm to others, but it represents the ancient law of positive self - sacrifice and constructive suffering. What is attained through love is, retained for ail time, while what is obtained by violence has within it the seeds of its own destruction. His economics based on truth and non violence is virtually a natural economy in which the satisfaction of basic needs of life of all members of the society is assured and given top priority.

    स्रोत : www.mkgandhi.org

    Chapter 3: Economics of Khadi

    Chapter 3 : Economics of Khadi from Gandhiji's book Gandhiji on KHADI : A compilation of gandhiji's views on khadi from his books and speeches.

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    Gandhiji on KHADI

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    GANDHIJI ON KHADI : CHAPTER 3: ECONOMICS OF KHADI

    Gandhiji on KHADI

    Table of Contents

    Preface Introduction Importance of Khadi

    Propagation of Khadi

    Economics of Khadi

    Khadi and Mill-cloth/Silk

    Message of Khadi Bibliography

    About This Book

    Selected and Compiled with an Introduction by : Divya JoshiFirst Edition :1,000 copies, 2002Printed by :Mouj Printing Bureau,

    Bombay 400 004 India

    Published by :M. T. Ajgaonkar,

    Executive Secretary,

    Mani Bhavan Gandhi Sangrahalaya

    19 Laburnum Road,

    Gamdevi, Bombay 400 007

    India.

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    Bibliography

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 17, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1965.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 21, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1966.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 23, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1967.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 24, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1967.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 25, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1967.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 26, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1967.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 27, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1968.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 28, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1968.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 29, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1968.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 30, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1968.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 31, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1969.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 32, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1969.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 33, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1969.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 34, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1969.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 35, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1969.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 36, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1970.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 37, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1970.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 38, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1970.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 40, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1970.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 41, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1970.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 42, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1970.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 43, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1971.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 45, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1971.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 46, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1971.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 47, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1971.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 56, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1973.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 57, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1974.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 58, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1974.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 59, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1974.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 60, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1974.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 61, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1975.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 62, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1975.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 64, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1976.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 65, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1976.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 66, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1976.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 67, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1976.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 68, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1977.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 70, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1977.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 71, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1978.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 72, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1978.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 73, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1978.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 75, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1979.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 76, Publication Division, N. Delhi,1979.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 78, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1979.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 79, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1980.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 81, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1980.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 82, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1980.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 84, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1981.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 85, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1982.

    M.K. Gandhi - CWMG Vol. 87, Publication Division, N. Delhi, 1983.

    C.W.M.G. - Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi.

    Chapter 3: Economics of Khadi

    "Khadi is only seemingly dear. I have pointed out in these pages that it is wrong to compare khadi with other cloth by comparing the prices of given lengths. The cheapness of khadi consists in the revolution of one's taste. The wearing of khadi replaces the conventional idea of wearing clothes for ornament by that of wearing them for use. Opinion is divided as to the want of durability of khadi. Division of opinion is based probably on difference of experience. Different experience is inevitable so long as we have not arrived at uniformity in spinning."

    स्रोत : www.gandhiashramsevagram.org

    Gandhian economics

    Gandhian economics

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    "Gandhian economics" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR

    Gandhian economics is a school of economic thought based on the spiritual and socio-economic principles expounded by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. It is largely characterised by rejection of the concept of the human being as a rational actor always seeking to maximize material self-interest that underlies classical economic thinking. Where Western economic systems were (and are) based on what he called the “multiplication of wants,” Gandhi felt that this was both unsustainable and devastating to the human spirit. His model, by contrast, aimed at the fulfillment of needs – including the need for meaning and community. As a school of economics the resulting model contained elements of protectionism, nationalism, adherence to the principles and objectives of nonviolence and a rejection of class war in favor of socio-economic harmony. Gandhi's economic ideas also aim to promote spiritual development and harmony with a rejection of materialism. The term "Gandhian economics" was coined by J. C. Kumarappa, a close supporter of Gandhi.[1]

    Contents

    1 Gandhi's economic ideas

    2 Swaraj, self-rule

    3 Gandhian economics and ethics

    4 Environmentalism

    5 Notable Gandhian Economists

    6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

    Gandhi's economic ideas[edit]

    Gandhi's thinking on what we would consider socia-secular issues (he himself saw little distinction between the sacred and its expression in the social world) was influenced by John Ruskin and the American writer Henry David Thoreau. Throughout his life, Gandhi sought to develop ways to fight India's extreme poverty, backwardness, and socio-economic challenges as a part of his wider involvement in the Indian independence movement. Gandhi's championing of and non-cooperation were centred on the principles of economic self-sufficiency. Gandhi sought to target European-made clothing and other products as not only a symbol of British colonialism but also the source of mass unemployment and poverty, as European industrial goods had left many millions of India's workers, craftsmen and women without a livelihood.[2]

    By championing homespun clothing and Indian-made goods, Gandhi sought to incorporate peaceful civil resistance as a means of promoting national self-sufficiency. Gandhi led farmers of Champaran and Kheda in a (civil disobedience and tax resistance) against the mill owners and landlords supported by the British government in an effort to end oppressive taxation and other policies that forced the farmers and workers into poverty and defend their economic rights. A major part of this rebellion was a commitment from the farmers to end caste discrimination and oppressive social practices against women while launching a co-operative effort to promote education, health care and self-sufficiency by producing their own clothes and food.[2]

    Gandhi and his followers also founded numerous in India (Gandhi had pioneered the settlement in South Africa). The concept of an has been compared with the commune, where its inhabitants would seek to produce their own food, clothing and means of living, while promoting a lifestyle of self-sufficiency, personal and spiritual development and working for wider social development. The included small farms and houses constructed by the inhabitants themselves. All inhabitants were expected to help in any task necessary, promoting the values of equality. Gandhi also espoused the notion of "trusteeship," which centred on denying material pursuits and coveting of wealth, with practitioners acting as "trustees" of other individuals and the community in their management of economic resources and property.[3]

    Contrary to many Indian socialists and communists, Gandhi was averse to all notions of class warfare and concepts of class-based revolution, which he saw as causes of social violence and disharmony. Gandhi's concept of egalitarianism was centred on the preservation of human dignity rather than material development. Some of Gandhi's closest supporters and admirers included industrialists such as Ghanshyamdas Birla, Ambalal Sarabhai, Jamnalal Bajaj and J. R. D. Tata, who adopted several of Gandhi's progressive ideas in managing labour relations while also personally participating in Gandhi's ashrams and socio-political work.[4]

    Swaraj, self-rule[edit]

    Main article: Swaraj

    Rudolph argues that after a false start in trying to emulate the English in an attempt to overcome his timidity, Gandhi discovered the inner courage he was seeking by helping his countrymen in South Africa. The new courage consisted of observing the traditional Bengali way of "self-suffering" and, in finding his own courage, he was enabled also to point out the way of 'Satyagraha' and 'ahimsa' to the whole of India.[5] Gandhi's writings expressed four meanings of freedom: as India's national independence; as individual political freedom; as group freedom from poverty; and as the capacity for personal self-rule.[6]

    Gandhi was a self-described philosophical anarchist,[7] and his vision of India meant an India without an underlying government.[8] He once said that "the ideally nonviolent state would be an ordered anarchy."[9] While political systems are largely hierarchical, with each layer of authority from the individual to the central government have increasing levels of authority over the layer below, Gandhi believed that society should be the exact opposite, where nothing is done without the consent of anyone, down to the individual. His idea was that true self-rule in a country means that every person rules his or herself and that there is no state which enforces laws upon the people.[10]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

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