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    which element has the highest electron affinity


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    The element with highest electron affinity in the periodic table is:

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    The element with highest electron affinity in the periodic table is:









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    Updated on : 2022-09-05

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    Correct option is B)

    As an exception to the rule, Cl has higher EA as compared to F. Fluorine has very small atomic size and this makes the fluoride anion unstable due to very high charge/mass ratio. F has no d orbitals so it has small atomic size. F has EA less than that of Cl.

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    What Is Electron Affinity?

    Learn all about electron affinity, including it's definition, periodic table trends & charts, exceptions and influencial factors


    What Is Electron Affinity?

    November 7, 2021 Posted by Charlotte Crutchlow

    08 AUG

    Core Concepts

    In this tutorial about electron affinity, we will cover its definition, relevant periodic table trends, and factors that influence it.

    Topics Covered in Other Articles

    Electronegativity Ionization Energy

    Periodic Table Trends

    Lattice Energy

    Electron Orbitals & Orbital Shapes

    What is Electron Affinity?

    Chemists define electron affinity as the change in energy, measured in units of kJ/mole, experienced when an electron is added to a gaseous atom. This process creates a negative ion. This process differs from electronegativity, which we define as the ability of an atom to attract an electron toward itself.

    We tend to liken electron affinity to an atom’s “likelihood,” or “chance,” of gaining an electron. It is the opposite of ionization energy, the energy required to ionize a gaseous atom and consequently remove an electron. Essentially, electron affinity pertains to the energy changes that accompany the gain of one electron, and ionization energy those that accompany losing one electron. Ionization energies always involve the formation of positive ions, electron affinity energies describe the generation of negative ions.

    First and Second Electron Affinities 

    There are two types of electron affinity, first and second. The first involves the addition of an electron to a neutral atom. Because this exothermic process releases energy, first electron affinities are negative values.

    The second pertains to the addition of an electron to a negative ion. This endothermic process requires more energy than is released when an electron is added to the system. This results in positive second electron affinity values.

    Periodic Trends

    Across Periods

    As we travel from left to right on the periodic table, electron affinities become more positive- meaning that the electron attachment process is more exothermic. Scientists attribute this pattern to the addition of electrons closer to the nuclei of these more rightward atoms.

    As elements trend to the right, the added electrons sit closer to their nuclei. These electrons exhibit a stronger attraction to the nuclei as a result of this proximity, explaining the exothermic nature of their electron affinities.

    Down Groups

    As we travel down groups, electron affinities become more negative, meaning the process is more endothermic. Electron proximity to these respective nuclei also influences this phenomenon, but contrary to the previous trend, electrons are placed in higher energy levels. As we travel down a group, elements contain electrons further from their nuclei, and these electrons are bound less tightly.

    Loosely bound electrons do not release as much energy upon joining an atom compared to to their tightly bound counterparts. Elements lower on the periodic table expel less energy upon the addition of an extra electron, giving the decreased exothermic nature of their electron affinities.

    Summary of Trend

    Below is a visual representation of electron affinity trends throughout the periodic table. As discussed, electron affinities increase from left to right across periods; electron affinities decrease from top to bottom down groups.

    Shielding Effect

    Let’s consider how valence electrons impact electron affinity trends. The number of valence electrons increase as we move down groups in the periodic table, as electron affinity decreases. We can rationalize this by considering the shielding effect. This rule acknowledges that while nuclei attract valence electrons, repulsion forces counter this attraction. These repulsion forces are generated by inner electrons positioned between the nuclei and the outer electrons.

    As we travel down each group, the influence of the shielding effect increases. There is a decrease in the attraction between outer electrons and their respective nuclei, producing elements with less electron affinity.

    Exception of Fluorine

    Fluorine presents another caveat regarding the group electron affinity trend. Although first electron affinities generally decrease as we travel down a group, corresponding to less energy involvement in the formation of negative ions, fluorine atoms break this pattern.

    Given its position at the top of its respective group, you would expect fluorine to exhibit a relatively high electron affinity. Due to fluorine’s very small atomic radius, the space surrounding its nucleus is also very small, thereby increasing the attraction between the incoming electron and the fluorine nucleus–and, by extension, its electron affinity.

    However, we must keep in mind that the incoming electron would be entering a crowded area already affected by high levels of repulsion. As we talked about, repulsion decreases the attraction between electrons and the nucleus, consequently lessening electron affinity. These repulsion effects are strong in fluorine atoms, prompting them to display smaller-than-expected electron affinities.

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    Element with highest electron affinity is

    Element with highest electron affinity is

    Byju's Answer Standard X Chemistry Halogens Element with ... Question

    Element with highest electron affinity is

    A F B Cl C O D Na Open in App Solution

    The correct option is D


    Although Fluorine has the highest electronegativity, Chlorine has the highest electron affinity and this is because the considerable repulsion in the tightly packed 2p subshell of Fluorine (whereas chlorine is an atom with a larger atomic size).

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    Q. The element with highest electron affinity will belong toQ. Element of which atomic number has highest electron affinity?Q. The element having highest electron affinity is :Q. The element with highest electron affinity among the halogens is :Q. Match the elements with the highest exhibited property:

    Column I Column II P Cs 1 atomic size

    Q F 2 Electron affinity

    R Cl 3 Electronegativity

    S Ar 4 Metallic character


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