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    which harmful gases are released by use of air conditioner which causes depletion of ozone layer

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    Basic Ozone Layer Science

    Learn about the ozone layer and how human activities deplete it. This page provides information on the chemical processes that lead to ozone layer depletion, and scientists' efforts to understand them.

    Basic Ozone Layer Science

    The Earth's protects all life from the sun's harmful radiation, but human activities have damaged this shield. Less ozone-layer protection from will, over time, damage crops and lead to higher skin cancer and cataract rates.

    Key Resources

    Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018EXIT

    EXIT EPA WEBSITE

    I. The Ozone Layer

    The Earth's atmosphere is composed of several layers. The lowest layer, the , extends from the Earth's surface up to about 6 miles or 10 kilometers (km) in altitude. Virtually all human activities occur in the troposphere. Mt. Everest, the tallest mountain on the planet, is only about 5.6 miles (9 km) high. The next layer, the , continues from 6 miles (10 km) to about 31 miles (50 km). Most commercial airplanes fly in the lower part of the stratosphere.

    Additional Information

    Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion

    Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources

    Information for students about the Ozone Layer

    Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Adapting to a Changed Ozone Layer

    Phasing Out Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Managing Refrigerant Emissions

    Most atmospheric ozone is concentrated in a layer in the stratosphere, about 9 to 18 miles (15 to 30 km) above the Earth's surface (see the figure below). Ozone is a molecule that contains three oxygen atoms. At any given time, ozone molecules are constantly formed and destroyed in the stratosphere. The total amount has remained relatively stable during the decades that it has been measured.

    Source: Figure Q1-2 from Michaela I. Hegglin (Lead Author), David W. Fahey, Mack McFarland, Stephen A. Montzka, and Eric R. Nash, Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer: 2014 Update, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2014, 84 pp., World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2015

    The ozone layer in the stratosphere absorbs a portion of the radiation from the sun, preventing it from reaching the planet's surface. Most importantly, it absorbs the portion of UV light called . UVB has been linked to many harmful effects, including skin cancers, cataracts, and harm to some crops and marine life.

    Scientists have established records spanning several decades that detail normal ozone levels during natural cycles. Ozone concentrations in the atmosphere vary naturally with sunspots, seasons, and latitude. These processes are well understood and predictable. Each natural reduction in ozone levels has been followed by a recovery. Beginning in the 1970s, however, scientific evidence showed that the ozone shield was being depleted well beyond natural processes.

    II. Ozone Depletion

    When chlorine and bromine atoms come into contact with ozone in the stratosphere, they destroy ozone molecules. One chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone molecules before it is removed from the stratosphere. Ozone can be destroyed more quickly than it is naturally created.

    Some compounds release chlorine or bromine when they are exposed to intense UV light in the stratosphere. These compounds contribute to ozone depletion, and are called ozone-depleting substances (). ODS that release chlorine include (CFCs), (HCFCs), , and . ODS that release bromine include and . Although ODS are emitted at the Earth’s surface, they are eventually carried into the stratosphere in a process that can take as long as two to five years.

    In the 1970s, concerns about the effects of ozone-depleting substances () on the stratospheric prompted several countries, including the United States, to ban the use of chlorofluorocarbons () as propellants. However, global production of CFCs and other ODS continued to grow rapidly as new uses were found for these chemicals in refrigeration, fire suppression, foam insulation, and other applications.

    Some natural processes, such as large volcanic eruptions, can have an indirect effect on ozone levels. For example, Mt. Pinatubo's 1991 eruption did not increase stratospheric chlorine concentrations, but it did produce large amounts of tiny particles called (different from consumer products also known as aerosols). These aerosols increase chlorine's effectiveness at destroying ozone. The aerosols in the stratosphere create a surface on which CFC-based chlorine can destroy ozone. However, the effect from volcanoes is short-lived.

    Not all chlorine and bromine sources contribute to ozone layer depletion. For example, researchers have found that chlorine from swimming pools, industrial plants, sea salt, and volcanoes does not reach the stratosphere. In contrast, ODS are very stable and do not dissolve in rain. Thus, there are no natural processes that remove the ODS from the lower atmosphere.

    One example of ozone depletion is the annual ozone "hole" over AntarcticaEXIT

    EXIT EPA WEBSITE

    that has occurred during the Antarctic spring since the early 1980s. This is not really a hole through the ozone layer, but rather a large area of the stratosphere with extremely low amounts of ozone.

    Ozone depletion is not limited to the area over the South Pole. Research has shown that ozone depletion occurs over the latitudes that include North America, Europe, Asia, and much of Africa, Australia, and South America. More information about the global extent of ozone depletion can be found in the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018EXIT

    स्रोत : www.epa.gov

    Name the chemicals which are used in refrigerators and air conditioners and damage the ozone layer when released into the air.

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ Name the chemicals which are used in refrigerators and air conditioners and damage the ozone layer when released into the air.

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    Name the chemicals which are used in refrigerators and air conditioners and damage the ozone layer when released into the air.

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    Updated on : 2022-09-05

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    CFCs contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane. Many CFCs have been widely used as refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications), and solvents.

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    Refrigeration and airconditioning

    Many refrigerants damage our environment Did you know that the refrigerants contained in air-conditioners and refrigerators can be extremely harmful to the environment? Many refrigerants, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) damage the ozone layer, while others are extremely potent greenhouse gases. In fact, one kilogram of the refrigerant R410a has the same greenhouse impact as two tonnes of carbon dioxide, which is the equivalent of running your car for six months.

    Refrigeration and airconditioning - Consumers

    Refrigeration and airconditioning - Consumers Many refrigerants damage our environment

    Did you know that the refrigerants contained in air-conditioners and refrigerators can be extremely harmful to the environment? Many refrigerants, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) damage the ozone layer, while others are extremely potent greenhouse gases.

    In fact, one kilogram of the refrigerant R410a has the same greenhouse impact as two tonnes of carbon dioxide, which is the equivalent of running your car for six months.

    That's why Australia has specific laws that prohibit the importation of gases like CFCs and regulates the importation of synthetic greenhouse gases.

    Refrigerants leak into the atmosphere from faulty or poorly maintained equipment, or when equipment is improperly disposed of.

    Only use licensed technicians: A technician who holds a Refrigerant Handling Licence has the training and skills to minimise the emission of these refrigerants to the atmosphere.

    It is an offence for anyone else to handle fluorocarbon refrigerants.

    Use the ARC authorised business search to find authorised businesses in your area.

    ARC authorised business search

    Australia's energy consumption

    The MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance Standards) levels are mandatory requirements for certain products (including air conditioners, refrigerators & freezers) manufactured in, or imported into, Australia and are specified in the relevant Australian Standards. Everyone has a role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Choosing an energy efficient appliance is one way to do this while also saving money.

    MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance Standards)

    Choose an energy efficient appliance. Look for the energy rating label, the more stars it has, the more efficient the product is.

    The less energy it uses, the less it costs you to run and the less damage it does to the environment.

    Compare appliances to find the most efficient for your needs.

    HFC phase-down

    The Australian Government will phase down bulk hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) imports from 2018 in line with a global agreement reached as part of the Montreal Protocol.

    HFCs are a type of synthetic greenhouse gas mostly used in refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment to replace ozone depleting substances that have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. While HFCs do not deplete the ozone layer, they are powerful greenhouse gases that survive in the atmosphere for many years.

    More information is available on: HFC phase-down – Frequently asked questions.

    The science & background

    Ozone is a naturally occurring gas, found mostly in a layer of the stratosphere 15-30 km above the surface of the earth.

    Ozone depleting substances (ODS) are used in many industries. If emitted these substances break down the ozone layer in the stratosphere.

    Synthetic greenhouse gases (SGGs) are most commonly used as replacements for some ozone depleting substances. They do not deplete the ozone layer but contribute to global warming. Most are far more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide.

    The Antarctic ozone hole is a dramatic thinning of ozone in the stratosphere over Antarctica each spring.

    स्रोत : www.dcceew.gov.au

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