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    which indian tribe taught the pilgrims about how to cultivate the land and were invited to the thanksgiving meal?


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    William Bradford and the First Thanksgiving [ushistory.org]

    3b. William Bradford and the First Thanksgiving

    As was the custom in England, the Pilgrims celebrated their harvest with a festival. The 50 remaining colonists and roughly 90 Wampanoag tribesmen attended the "First Thanksgiving."

    The major similarity between the first Jamestown settlers and the first Plymouth settlers was great human suffering.

    November was too late to plant crops. Many settlers died of scurvy and malnutrition during that horrible first winter. Of the 102 original passengers, only 44 survived. Again like in Jamestown, the kindness of the local Native Americans saved them from a frosty death.

    The Pilgrims' remarkable courage was displayed the following spring. When the returned to Europe, not a single Pilgrim deserted Plymouth.

    Helping Hands

    Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag tribe, signed a treaty with the Pilgrams in 1621, that was never broken. As a result, the two groups enjoyed a peaceful coexistence.

    By early 1621, the Pilgrims had built crude huts and a common house on the shores of Plymouth Bay. Soon neighboring Indians began to build relations with the Pilgrims. SQUANTO, a local Indian who had been kidnapped and taken to England nearly a decade before, served as an interpreter with the local tribes. Squanto taught the Pilgrims to fertilize the soil with dried fish remains to produce a stellar corn crop.

    MASSASOIT, the chief of the nearby Wampanoags, signed a treaty of alliance with the Pilgrims in the summer. In exchange for assistance with defense against the feared Narragansett tribe, Massasoit supplemented the food supply of the Pilgrims for the first few years.

    Governor Bradford

    The modern conception of a Pilgrim might include a man in a black hat with a buckle, but not all of the original settlers of Plymouth County fit this description.

    Successful colonies require successful leadership. The man to step forward in Plymouth colony was WILLIAM BRADFORD. After the first governor elected under the Mayflower Compact perished from the harsh winter, Bradford was elected governor for the next thirty years. In May of 1621, he performed the colony's first marriage ceremony.

    Under Bradford's guidance, Plymouth suffered less hardship than their English compatriots in Virginia. Relations with the local natives remained relatively smooth in Plymouth and the food supply grew with each passing year.

    By autumn of 1621, the Pilgrims had much for which to be thankful. After the harvest, Massasoit and about ninety other Indians joined the Pilgrims for the great English tradition of HARVEST FESTIVAL. The participants celebrated for several days, dining on venison, goose, duck, turkey, fish, and of course, cornbread, the result of a bountiful corn harvest. This tradition was repeated at harvest time in the following years.

    It was President Lincoln who declared Thanksgiving a national celebration in 1863. The Plymouth Pilgrims simply celebrated survival, as well as the hopes of good fortune in the years that lay ahead.

    स्रोत : www.ushistory.org

    What Really Happened at the First Thanksgiving? The Wampanoag Side of the Tale

    For Thanksgiving this year Indian Country Today Media Network spoke to the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe's Tribal Historic Preservation Officer to get a better understanding of what really happened 401 years ago at the first Thanksgiving, and what Wampanoags do today.

    What Really Happened at the First Thanksgiving? The Wampanoag Side of the Tale


    This is a popular image of the first Thanksgiving, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris. But this is definitely NOT what happened.

    For Thanksgiving this year ICTMN spoke to the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe's Tribal Historic Preservation Officer to get a better understanding of what really happened 401 years ago at the first Thanksgiving, and what Wampanoags do today

    Gale Courey ToensingIndian Country Today

    When you hear about the Pilgrims and “the Indians” harmoniously sharing the “first Thanksgiving” meal in 1621, the Indians referred to so generically are the ancestors of the contemporary members of the Wampanoag Nation. As the story commonly goes, the Pilgrims who sailed from England on the Mayflower and landed at what became Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620 had a good harvest the next year. So Plymouth Gov. William Bradford organized a feast to celebrate the harvest and invited a group of “Native American allies, including the Wampanoag chief Massasoit” to the party. The feast lasted three days and, according to chronicler Edward Winslow, Bradford sent four men on a “fowling mission” to prepare for the feast and the Wampanoag guests brought five deer to the party. And ever since then, the story goes, Americans have celebrated Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday of November. Not exactly, Ramona Peters, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe’s Tribal Historic Preservation Officer told Indian Country Today Media Network in a conversation on the day before Thanksgiving 2012—391 years since that mythological “first Thanksgiving.”

    (Related: 400 years later, 'we did not vanish')We know what we’re taught in mainstream media and in schools is made up. What’s the Wampanoag version of what happened?

    Yeah, it was made up. It was Abraham Lincoln who used the theme of Pilgrims and Indians eating happily together. He was trying to calm things down during the Civil War when people were divided. It was like a nice unity story.

    So it was a political thing?

    Yes, it was public relations. It’s kind of genius, in a way, to get people to sit down and eat dinner together. Families were divided during the Civil War.

    So what really happened?

    We made a treaty. The leader of our nation at the time—Yellow Feather Oasmeequin (Massasoit) made a treaty with (John) Carver [the first governor of the colony]. They elected an official while they were still on the boat. They had their charter. They were still under the jurisdiction of the king [of England]—at least that’s what they told us. So they couldn’t make a treaty for a boatload of people so they made a treaty between two nations—England and the Wampanoag Nation.

    What did the treaty say?

    It basically said we’d let them be there and we would protect them against any enemies and they would protect us from any of ours. [The 2011 Native American $1 coin commemorates the 1621 treaty between the Wampanoag tribe and the Pilgrims of Plymouth colony.] It was basically an I’ll watch your back, you watch mine’ agreement. Later on we collaborated on jurisdictions and creating a system so that we could live together.

    What’s the Mashpee version of the 1621 meal?

    You’ve probably heard the story of how Squanto assisted in their planting of corn? So this was their first successful harvest and they were celebrating that harvest and planning a day of their own thanksgiving. And it’s kind of like what some of the Arab nations do when they celebrate by shooting guns in the air. So this is what was going on over there at Plymouth. They were shooting guns and canons as a celebration, which alerted us because we didn’t know who they were shooting at. So Massasoit gathered up some 90 warriors and showed up at Plymouth prepared to engage, if that was what was happening, if they were taking any of our people. They didn’t know. It was a fact-finding mission.

    (WATCH: A Wampanoag retelling of Thanksgiving)

    When they arrived it was explained through a translator that they were celebrating the harvest, so we decided to stay and make sure that was true, because we’d seen in the other landings—(Captain John) Smith, even the Vikings had been here—so we wanted to make sure so we decided to camp nearby for a few days. During those few days, the men went out to hunt and gather food—deer, ducks, geese, and fish. There are 90 men here and at the time I think there are only 23 survivors of that boat, the Mayflower, so you can imagine the fear. You have armed Natives who are camping nearby. They [the colonists] were always vulnerable to the new land, new creatures, even the trees—there were no such trees in England at that time. People forget they had just landed here and this coastline looked very different from what it looks like now. And their culture—new foods, they were afraid to eat a lot of things. So they were very vulnerable and we did protect them, not just support them, we protected them. You can see throughout their journals that they were always nervous and, unfortunately, when they were nervous they were very aggressive.

    स्रोत : indiancountrytoday.com

    Why the Wampanoag Signed a Peace Treaty with the Mayflower Pilgrims

    The treaty that made the first Thanksgiving possible has a dark backstory.

    Why the Wampanoag Signed a Peace Treaty with the Mayflower Pilgrims


    Ousamequin, chief of the Wampanoag signs a peace treaty with Governor John Carver. Credit: MPI/Getty Images

    The treaty that made the first Thanksgiving possible has a dark backstory.

    In March 1621, representatives of the Wampanoag Confederacy—the Indigenous people of the region that is now southeastern Massachusetts—negotiated a treaty with a group of English settlers who had arrived on the Mayflower several months earlier and were struggling to build a life for themselves in Plymouth Colony.

    The peace accord, which would be honored on both sides for the next half-century, was the first official treaty between English settlers and Native Americans, and a rare example of cooperation between the two groups. On the orders of their leader, Ousamequin (known to the settlers as Massasoit), the Wampanoags taught the English men and women how to plant crops, where to fish and hunt, and other skills that would prove critical to the new colony’s survival. To celebrate the first harvest at Plymouth, Governor William Bradford and the other settlers invited the Wampanoags for a celebratory feast in November 1621, now remembered as the first Thanksgiving.

    As the Wampanoags left few written records, most of what we know of the treaty and its aftermath comes from English chroniclers of Plymouth Colony’s history, namely Bradford and his fellow Pilgrim Edward Winslow. But in focusing on the Plymouth colonists, familiar versions of the story often gloss over the Wampanoags, their motivations for seeking a peace treaty with the English settlers in 1621 and the benefits they—at least temporarily—gained from the alliance.

    WATCH: Native American History videos on HISTORY Vault

    Earlier Encounters with Europeans—and a Devastating Plague

    From the moment the Mayflower arrived off the coast of Massachusetts in November 1620, the Wampanoags in the region had watched the new arrivals closely, but kept their distance. Previous European explorers, beginning with Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524, had initially been welcomed for the trade possibilities. That changed after 1614, when Captain Thomas Hunt kidnapped a group of Wampanoags from the community of Patuxet (the future site of Plymouth Colony) to sell into slavery.

    Around 1616, an unknown disease likely brought by European traders struck the Wampanoags and other Native American tribes in the region. Candidates for the mysterious disease have ranged from smallpox or measles (or a combination) to yellow fever to cerebrospinal meningitis, while a 2010 study suggested a bacterial infection known as leptospirosis.

    While contemporary accounts from English sources referred to “the plague,” bubonic plague has been widely discounted, according to historian David J. Silverman. He argues that the most likely culprit was malignant confluent smallpox, which would have caused the combination of symptoms—headache, spots, sores (pox), yellowing of the skin—that victims reportedly showed.

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    Whatever the plague was, it decimated the Indigenous groups in the region where Plymouth Colony would soon be founded. By one account, the Wampanoag nation lost an estimated two-thirds of its population, or as many as 45,000 people.

    Need for an Ally Against the Narragansett

    Samoset is depicted as welcoming Pilgrims in Plymouth in 1621 in this book illustration published in 1853.

    Archive Photos/Getty Images

    By 1620, Wampanoag weakness had provided an opportunity for a rival group to the west, the Narragansett, who had largely escaped the impact of the disease. When the Plymouth settlers arrived, Ousamequin was struggling to prevent the Narragansett from subjugating the remaining Wampanoags and forcing them to pay tribute. While he initially kept his distance from the Mayflower’s inhabitants, fearing further aggression—and disease—Ousamequin evidently came to the conclusion that an alliance with the new English arrivals in the region could help protect his people.

    After sending Samoset, an Abenaki chief (possibly a captive of the Wampanoag) who knew some English, as an emissary to the Plymouth settlers on March 16, 1621, Ousamequin arrived about a week later. He and Governor John Carver negotiated the treaty with the help of Tisquantum (Squanto), a Wampanoag from Patuxet who had been among the group captured by Hunt in 1614. Tisquantum had managed to escape slavery and lived briefly in England before returning home in 1619 aboard another English ship.

    As Bradford and Winslow later wrote in Mourt’s Relation (1622), “[Ousamequin] has a potent adversary in the Narragansetts, that are at war with him, against whom he thinks we may be of some strength to him, for our pieces [guns] are terrible to them.” In the treaty, the Wampanoags and the Plymouth settlers, on behalf of King James I, agreed to keep peace between them, as well as to defend each other against potential attacks by other Indigenous groups.

    स्रोत : www.history.com

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