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    which of the following are least likely to be present during primary succession

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    All of the following statements are true of primary succession except

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    Question

    All of the following statements are true of primary succession except

    A

    primary succession occurs after a volcanic eruption.

    B

    pioneer plants include lichens and mosses.

    C

    primary succession occurs after a destructive forest fire.

    D

    development of a community occurs in an area where no soil initially exists.

    E

    primary succession occurs on coastal sand dunes.

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    Correct option is C)

    Primary succession occurs in an area which is barren or lifeless and not suitable for sustaining normal life forms as soil is absent and no humus while secondary succession is the series of community changes which takes place on a previously colonized, but disturbed or damaged habitat. Examples include areas which have been cleared of existing vegetation and destructive events such as fires. Therefore, destructive forest fire leads to secondary succession where there is still some organic matter to allow new plants to grow.

    So, the correct answer is option C.

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    Ecological Succession

    Free practice questions for AP Environmental Science - Ecological Succession. Includes full solutions and score reporting.

    AP Environmental Science : Ecological Succession

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    AP Environmental Science Help » Ecosystems and Biology » Ecological Change » Ecological Succession

    Example Question #1 : Ecological Succession

    Which of the following is an example of primary succession?

    Possible Answers:

    A plant community becoming simplified with fewer species and less biomass

    A transition from one ecosystem type to another

    An ecosystem diversifying, supporting more species and increases in biomass

    A succession of larger plants (trees, shrubs, etc.) following the establishment of pioneer species

    Plant communities are established in a lifeless environment, usually devoid of soil

    Correct answer:

    Plant communities are established in a lifeless environment, usually devoid of soil

    Explanation:

    Primary succession commonly occurs after a volcanic eruption or a glacier recedes, because these areas have been stripped of organic matter. Primary succession is the process by which pioneer species colonize an area otherwise uninhabitable for plant life and generate nitrogen for other plant communities.

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    Example Question #1 : Ecological Succession

    Which of the following provides the most accurate example of primary succession?

    Possible Answers:

    Seedlings establishing themselves in a heavily logged area where the seed-tree cutting method was employed

    Lichens re-establish themselves on rocks and shallow soil beds following a tundra fire

    Lichen and grass communities establishing themselves on a recently-formed island, resulting from an uplift in the ocean bedrock

    Coral reef and aquatic wildlife communities that have re-established themselves in regions of the South Pacific that were evacuated following the nuclear tests conducted by the U.S. military

    Native grass communities forming after a wildfire burned through a meadow/woodland ecosystem

    Correct answer:

    Lichen and grass communities establishing themselves on a recently-formed island, resulting from an uplift in the ocean bedrock

    Explanation:

    Primary succession is characterized by plants establishing themselves in areas that were initially devoid of soil (usually bedrock). Grasses establishing themselves on a newly-formed island that is mostly bedrock is the best fit for this definition.

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    Example Question #1 : Ecological Succession

    Which of the following is the most accurate example of secondary succession?

    Possible Answers:

    Twenty years after the Mount St. Helens eruption, small trees and grasses have begun to regrow near the top of the peak, where the eruption occurred.

    Following the Dust Bowl of the 1930's, prairie grasses reestablished themselves in areas had lost most of their fertile soil to wind erosion.

    A forest fire burns down crowded understory grasses and shrubs as well as some ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota.

    In 1962, a volcanic eruption off the coast of Iceland resulted in a formation of a new island "Surtsey" from ocean bedrock.

    Lichens and small spruce trees have established themselves in regions of Alaska where glaciers once existed but have since receded.

    Correct answer:

    A forest fire burns down crowded understory grasses and shrubs as well as some ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Explanation:

    Primary succession is characterized by a total loss of biomass and soil from the ecosystem or a beginning lack thereof. Land that has been covered by a glacier or under the seabed will be devoid of soil, much like the exposed bedrock seen after the Dust Bowl or the Mount St. Helens eruption. By contrast, a forest fire can typically be characterized as secondary succession because the soil remains intact and the ecosystem can typically recover much quicker because of that fact.

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    Example Question #22 : Ecological Change

    Which of the following would NOT contribute significantly to primary succession?

    Possible Answers:

    Wind-carried soil particles and nutrients

    The time-consuming process of weathering the bedrock into smaller particles

    Feces from wildlife populations that occupy the region

    Soil nutrients deposited by a nearby river

    Pre-existing nitrogen-fixing plant communities

    Correct answer:

    Pre-existing nitrogen-fixing plant communities

    Explanation:

    Primary succession is characterized by pioneer species establishing themselves in areas that are predominantly bedrock and devoid of organic material. The formation of organic material in these areas typically occurs with the accumulation of wind-carried soil erosion, nutrients deposited by flowing bodies of water, and erosion of bedrock. Wildlife populations are also a significant contributor of soil nutrients, with feces being rich in both nitrogen and phosphorus. In contrast, pre-existing nitrogen-fixing plants (or any pre-existing plant communities) are uncommon to nonexistent in an area with no established soil system.

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    APES Ecosystems and Biology Practice Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Which of the following is an example of primary succession?, Which of the following provides the most accurate example of primary succession?, Which of the following is the most accurate example of secondary succession? and more.

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    Which of the following is an example of primary succession?

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    Plant communities are established in a lifeless environment, usually devoid of soil

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    Which of the following provides the most accurate example of primary succession?

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    lichen and grass form on a rock island

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    1/136 Created by jennabaker127

    Terms in this set (136)

    Which of the following is an example of primary succession?

    Plant communities are established in a lifeless environment, usually devoid of soil

    Which of the following provides the most accurate example of primary succession?

    lichen and grass form on a rock island

    Which of the following is the most accurate example of secondary succession?

    a forest fire burns down grasses and some trees

    Which of the following would NOT contribute significantly to primary succession?

    Pre-existing nitrogen-fixing plant communities

    Primary succession is characterized by pioneer species establishing themselves in areas that are

    predominantly bedrock and devoid of organic material

    Which of the following is a structural change in a community and its nonliving environment over time that alters the ecosystem?

    Succession

    Which of the following are least likely to be present during primary succession?

    Trees

    Ecosystems recover from disturbances in unique ways. A landscape ecologist observes in area right after a volcanic eruption. There is lava and dust across the landscape, and all vegetation has been removed. What is this ecosystem experiencing?

    Primary succession

    After an event such as a fire or a tree fall in a forest, early successional species are the first to reappear. Which is an example of early successional species?

    Grasses

    A glacier has just receded across the landscape. As the glacier retreated, it completely decimated all standing vegetation. The landscape recovers quickly because there are plenty of seeds left in the seed bank. What is this an example of?

    Secondary succession

    What is the process by which ecosystems change gradually overtime?

    Ecological succession

    Which of the following is an accurate example of primary ecological succession?

    river sediments lead moss to grow on barren rock

    Which of the following organisms would be most likely to be found in an ecosystem undergoing primary succession?

    Lichen

    The streamlined shape found in the body plans of both sharks and dolphins is an example of

    convergent evolution

    Convergent Evolution

    two species that are not closely related evolve similar characteristics

    What type of organisms were the first to develop?

    Prokaryotes

    Which of the following terms is defined as any change in the proportions of different genotypes in a population from one generation to the next?

    Evolution

    Which of the following does not represent a process leading to evolution?

    Coevolution coevolution

    one species evolves at the same time as another related species

    Which of the following terms describes the evolution that species have in response to one another and was authored by Charles Mode in 1958? This term was used to describe his fascination with the evolutionary responses that crops and pests have to each other.

    coevolution

    which statement is true about genetic drift?

    Genetic drift is completely random

    The diversification of the finches on the Galapagos Islands from a single founding species into many different species in different ecological niches is an example of:

    adaptive radiation adaptive radiation

    organisms develop specialized adaptations and then form different species

    Which two ecologists developed the Theory of Island Biogeography?

    Robert MacArthur and E. O. Wilson

    Which of the following is not a risk management strategy?

    conservative method

    What are the risk management strategies?

    Market-based, hierarchical, sectarian, rational

    Clear-cutting has become industry practice for harvesting timber; however, some forests evolved to regenerate after forest fires and have adapted to massive clearings of habitat. Which of the following is a problem that these forests might encounter when faced with clear-cutting?

    conifers have seeds that need fire to germinate

    While human activities are reducing the extent of many biomes, which of the following biomes is actually being spread as a result of human impact?

    Deserts

    Which of the following is a result of the process of composting?

    Nutrient-rich soil conditioner

    Which of the following terms is not a major threat to global biodiversity?

    Habitat connectivity

    Humans can greatly alter ecosystem functions and processes. Excessive nitrogen pollution from humans has transformed many aquatic ecosystems from nutrient poor to nutrient rich environments. This is an example of which of the following processes?

    Eutrophication

    Disturbances are normal processes that help maintain biodiversity and healthy ecosystem because they create which of the following?

    Heterogeneous landscapes

    What fields of study are related to environmental science?

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