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    Which of the following is considered as major source of pollution in rivers of India

    Which of the following is considered as major source of pollution in rivers of India ?

    Eduncle posted an MCQ

    October 13, 2019 • 10:04 am

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    UGC NETGeneral Paper 1

    Which of the following is considered as major source of pollution in rivers of India ?

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    Eduncle Best Answer

    Untreated sewage is considered as major sources of pollution in rivers of India.

    Pathogenic Organisms : Sewage and domestic waste from houses introduce pathogenic organism’s viz., protozoa, worms-eggs and bacteria into water. This contaminated water if consumed causes jaundice, typhoid, dysentery, cholera, tuberculosis etc.

    Underground water particularly in cities and industrial areas is no more pure and safe. The sources of underground water pollution are sewage, seepage, pits, industrial effluents, septic tanks, fertilizers and pesticides, garbage etc.

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    स्रोत : scoop.eduncle.com

    Water pollution in India

    Water pollution in India

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    Canals, rivers and lakes in India often serve as dumping grounds for sewage, solid and liquid wastes. These are sources of water pollution, as illustrated in Tamil Nadu (above) and West Bengal (below).

    Water pollution is a major environmental issue in India. The largest source of water pollution in India is untreated sewage.[1] Other sources of pollution include agricultural runoff and unregulated small-scale industry. Most rivers, lakes and surface water in India are polluted due to industries, untreated sewage and solid wastes.[2][3] Although the average annual precipitation in India is about 4000 billion cubic metres, only about 1122 billion cubic metres of water resources are available for utilization due to lack of infrastructure.[4] Much of this water is unsafe, because pollution degrades water quality. Water pollution severely limits the amount of water available to Indian consumers, its industry and its agriculture.


    1 Causes of pollution

    1.1 Untreated sewage

    1.2 Agricultural Run-off and Industrial Wasterwater

    1.3 Other problems

    2 Quality of water resources

    2.1 Quality Monitoring

    2.2 Organic matter 2.3 Coliform levels 3 Solutions

    3.1 Sewage Treatment

    3.2 Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    4 Specific rivers 4.1 The Ganges 4.2 The Yamuna 4.3 Other 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

    Causes of pollution[edit]

    Untreated sewage[edit]

    There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained.[5]

    The majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plants remain closed most of the time due to improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants, together with absentee employees and poor management. The waste water generated in these areas normally percolates into the soil or evaporates. The uncollected waste accumulates in the urban areas causing unhygienic conditions and releasing pollutants that leach into surface and groundwater.[6]

    Sewage discharged from cities, towns and some villages is the predominant cause of water pollution in India.[1] Investment is needed to bridge the gap between the sewage India generates and its treatment capacity of sewage per day.[4] Major cities of India produce 38,354 million litres per day (MLD) of sewage, but the urban sewage treatment capacity is only 11,786 MLD.[7] A large number of Indian rivers are severely polluted as a result of discharge of domestic sewage.

    The scientific analysis of water samples from 1995 to 2008 indicates that the organic and bacterial contamination is severe in water bodies of India. This is mainly due to discharge of domestic waste water in untreated form, mostly from the urban centres of India.

    Agricultural Run-off and Industrial Wasterwater[edit]

    Pesticides are a major contaminant of water bodies in developing countries. Many pesticides have been banned all over the world due to their environmental damage such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), Aldrin and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), but are still commonly used as a cheap and easily available alternative to other pesticides in India.[8] India has used over 350,000 million tonnes of DDT since 1985, even though DDT was banned in 1989.[] The introduction of agrochemicals like HCH and DDT into water bodies can cause bioaccumulation, since these chemicals are resistant to degradation. These chemicals are a part of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which are potential carcinogens and mutagens. The levels of POPs found in several Indian rivers are well above the WHO permissible limit.[8]

    The wastewater from many industries in India is discarded in rivers. From 2016 to 2017, it is estimated that 7.17 million tonnes of hazardous waste was produced by industrial plants.[9] The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) reported that as of 2016, there were 746 industries directly depositing wastewater into the Ganga, which is the largest river in India. This wastewater contains heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, zinc, and arsenic, which negatively affect both aquatic life as well as human health. Bioaccumulation of these metals can cause several adverse effects on health such as impaired cognitive function, gastrointestinal damage, or renal damage.

    Other problems[edit]

    A joint study by PRIMER and the Punjab Pollution Control Board in 2008, revealed that in villages along the Nullah, fluoride, mercury, beta-endosulphan and heptachlor pesticide were more than permissible limit (MPL) in ground and tap water. Plus the water had high concentration of COD and BOD (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand), ammonia, phosphate, chloride, chromium, arsenic and chlorpyrifos pesticide. The ground water also contains nickel and selenium, while the tap water has high concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium.[10]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Which of the following is the major source of water pollution?

    Which of the following is the major source of water pollution?


    Which of the following is the major source of water pollution?


    Which of the following is the major source of water pollution?

    A Industries B Sewage C Automobiles D Both a and b Open in App Solution

    The correct option is B

    Both a and b

    Both sewage and industries are major sources of water pollution.

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    स्रोत : byjus.com

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