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    which of the following material is used in solar cells?

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    Solar Photovoltaic Cell Basics

    There are a variety of different semiconductor materials used in solar photovoltaic cells. Learn more about the most commonly-used materials.

    Solar Photovoltaic Cell Basics

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    When light shines on a photovoltaic (PV) cell – also called a solar cell – that light may be reflected, absorbed, or pass right through the cell. The PV cell is composed of semiconductor material; the “semi” means that it can conduct electricity better than an insulator but not as well as a good conductor like a metal. There are several different semiconductor materials used in PV cells.

    When the semiconductor is exposed to light, it absorbs the light’s energy and transfers it to negatively charged particles in the material called electrons. This extra energy allows the electrons to flow through the material as an electrical current. This current is extracted through conductive metal contacts – the grid-like lines on a solar cells – and can then be used to power your home and the rest of the electric grid.

    The efficiency of a PV cell is simply the amount of electrical power coming out of the cell compared to the energy from the light shining on it, which indicates how effective the cell is at converting energy from one form to the other. The amount of electricity produced from PV cells depends on the characteristics (such as intensity and wavelengths) of the light available and multiple performance attributes of the cell.

    An important property of PV semiconductors is the bandgap, which indicates what wavelengths of light the material can absorb and convert to electrical energy. If the semiconductor’s bandgap matches the wavelengths of light shining on the PV cell, then that cell can efficiently make use of all the available energy.

    Learn more below about the most commonly-used semiconductor materials for PV cells.

    SILICON 

    Silicon is, by far, the most common semiconductor material used in solar cells, representing approximately 95% of the modules sold today. It is also the second most abundant material on Earth (after oxygen) and the most common semiconductor used in computer chips. Crystalline silicon cells are made of silicon atoms connected to one another to form a crystal lattice. This lattice provides an organized structure that makes conversion of light into electricity more efficient.

    Solar cells made out of silicon currently provide a combination of high efficiency, low cost, and long lifetime. Modules are expected to last for 25 years or more, still producing more than 80% of their original power after this time.

    THIN-FILM PHOTOVOLTAICS 

    A thin-film solar cell is made by depositing one or more thin layers of PV material on a supporting material such as glass, plastic, or metal. There are two main types of thin-film PV semiconductors on the market today: cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Both materials can be deposited directly onto either the front or back of the module surface.

    CdTe is the second-most common PV material after silicon, and CdTe cells can be made using low-cost manufacturing processes. While this makes them a cost-effective alternative, their efficiencies still aren't quite as high as silicon. CIGS cells have optimal properties for a PV material and high efficiencies in the lab, but the complexity involved in combining four elements makes the transition from lab to manufacturing more challenging. Both CdTe and CIGS require more protection than silicon to enable long-lasting operation outdoors.

    PEROVSKITE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    Perovskite solar cells are a type of thin-film cell and are named after their characteristic crystal structure. Perovskite cells are built with layers of materials that are printed, coated, or vacuum-deposited onto an underlying support layer, known as the substrate. They are typically easy to assemble and can reach efficiencies similar to crystalline silicon. In the lab, perovskite solar cell efficiencies have improved faster than any other PV material, from 3% in 2009 to over 25% in 2020. To be commercially viable, perovskite PV cells have to become stable enough to survive 20 years outdoors, so researchers are working on making them more durable and developing large-scale, low-cost manufacturing techniques.

    ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS 

    Organic PV, or OPV, cells are composed of carbon-rich (organic) compounds and can be tailored to enhance a specific function of the PV cell, such as bandgap, transparency, or color. OPV cells are currently only about half as efficient as crystalline silicon cells and have shorter operating lifetimes, but could be less expensive to manufacture in high volumes. They can also be applied to a variety of supporting materials, such as flexible plastic, making OPV able to serve a wide variety of uses.PV

    QUANTUM DOTS

    Quantum dot solar cells conduct electricity through tiny particles of different semiconductor materials just a few nanometers wide, called quantum dots. Quantum dots provide a new way to process semiconductor materials, but it is difficult to create an electrical connection between them, so they’re currently not very efficient. However, they are easy to make into solar cells. They can be deposited onto a substrate using a spin-coat method, a spray, or roll-to-roll printers like the ones used to print newspapers.

    स्रोत : www.energy.gov

    Which of the following material(s) is/are used in making a solar cell?

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ Which of the following material(s) is/are used in making a solar cell?

    Question

    Which of the following material(s) is/are used in making a solar cell?

    This question has multiple correct options

    A

    Silicon

    B

    Polycrystalline Thin Films

    C

    Gallium Arsenide

    D

    Both A and B

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    Updated on : 2022-09-05

    Solution Verified by Toppr

    Correct options are A) , B) and C)

    Answer:− A,B,C

    Solar cells can be classified into first, second and third generation cells. The first generation cells—also called conventional, traditional or wafer-based cells—are made of crystalline silicon, the commercially predominant PV technology, that includes materials such as polysilicon and monocrystalline silicon.

    Second generation cells are thin film solar cells, that include amorphous silicon, CdTe and CIGS (Copper indium gallium selenide) cells and are commercially significant in utility-scale photovoltaic power stations. The third generation of solar cells includes a number of thin-film technologies often described as emerging photovoltaics—most of them have not yet been commercially applied and are still in the research.

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    [Solved] Which of the following materials is widely used in solar cel

    The Sun is the major source of energy on Earth and has been producing energy for billions of years. Heat and light from the Sun, solar energy, is one of the cle

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    Which of the following materials is widely used in solar cell fabrication?

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    Official Paper 8: Held on 21st June 2019 Shift - 2

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    The Sun is the major source of energy on Earth and has been producing energy for billions of years. Heat and light from the Sun, solar energy, is one of the cleanest and most abundant sources of renewable energy.

    Solar Cell:

    Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy resource due to its abundance and inexhaustibility.

    Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity and are the most direct devices to use solar energy.Silicon is the most widely used material for solar cells due to its abundance in the earth’s crust. It is also a semiconductor with good stability, non-toxicity and well-established refining and processing technologies.

    Solar cells can be used for various purposes – lighting, rooftop panels, pumping etc.

    Crystalline silicon is widely used in fabricating solar cells.

    Silicon is treated with phosphorus and boron and then made shiny using usually titanium oxide (for anti-reflective properties) and then used as disks in solar cells.

    Hence, it can be concluded from the given points that silicon is widely used in solar cell fabrication.

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