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    Sexually Transmitted Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Article 31. 07. 2018

    Sexually transmitted diseases caused by viruses include genital warts, genital herpes and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Let us discuss the specifics of these diseases, their subsequent treatment and essentially their prevention. Genital warts (anogenital warts)

    Genital warts, otherwise known  as condylomata acuminata is a skin disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) which affects the external genitalia, the area between the penis/vagina and the anus, anus, vagina, cervix and the penis. This virus is responsible for the most widespread sexually transmitted disease. 75-80% of all sexually-active people encounter it within their lifetime. There are dozens of types of this virus, some of which will manifest themselves externally. Low-risk types are responsible for causing genital warts in an infected individual. The more serious form of the disease is caused by high-risk HPV is responsible for causing precancerous changes of the cervix, the skin of the external genitalia, the vagina as well as the anus. If these changes are not detected in time and treated accordingly, the infected individual can develop a malignant tumor and cancer.

    Symptoms, transmission and diagnosis

    Genital warts are tiny (millimeters) flat or cauliflower-shaped (multiple)  skin growths of a pinkish/grayish color. Sometimes individual warts can group themselves into what appear to be several centimeter wide growths. The disease is often accompanied by itchiness, soreness, redness or pain in the affected region. The disease is most commonly transmitted via sexual intercourse and less frequently from mother-to-child during birth. Alternatively, it can be transferred by autoinoculation which refers to transmission of the disease from infected skin of the body to a non-infected region (for example from scratching the wart). The formation of warts usually occurs 3-6 months (sometimes years) following infection. Diagnosis can be made following a gynecological examination and alternatively by taking samples from the infected tissue and then undergoing a histological examination (under a microscope).

    Treatment and prevention

    There are many available treatment options. It can be in the form of a locally-applied cream (Imiquimod) or a solution (podophyllin, trichloroacetic acid), burning of the lesions using liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy) or through surgical removal (scraping off of the lesions with a scalpel or their removal using a laser). The selected treatment method depends on the extent and progression of the disease as well as the individual desires of the patient in question.  HPV infections as well as genital warts can be avoided with widely available immunization. Optimal protection is achieved when immunization takes place prior to being sexually active.

    Genital herpes

    Yet another common sexually transmitted disease is genital herpes. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is estimated that 1 out of 5 sexually active people will contract the virus, while in most of them, the infection has no apparent symptoms.  8 out of 10 infected people have no knowledge of being infected. There are two known types of the herpes simplex virus. Type 1 is associated with herpes found around the face, while in some cases, for example through oral sex, it can also be transferred to the genital region as well. Type 2 is responsible almost solely for genital herpes.

    Symptoms, transmission and diagnosis

    Although the initial infection may occur without any symptoms, some infected individuals experience a sudden and quick outburst of many small and very painful blisters. They may also experience an increase in body temperature/fever, joint pain and muscle aches. Even after the symptoms have subsided, the virus survives in the body and a patient can experience repeated outbursts. Generally however, repeat outburst have a milder progression. Approximately 1/2 of all infected individuals experience a feeling of tension, itchiness and pain (so-called prodromes) prior to the appearance of the blisters. At this time, they can consume antiviral medication that often results in the complications subsiding very quickly, often avoiding the occurrence of the blisters themselves.

    To confirm infection, it is best to visit a doctor at the point at which the blister outburst occurred. The doctor can retrieve a scrape sample and then confirm the presence of the virus at the laboratory. Blood sampling is less effective and is therefore not suitable for general testing.

    Treatment and prevention

    With the help of modern antiviral medication, we have a very effective and safe (even with long-term usage) method of treatment. In the case of the first infection, the treatment may last anywhere between 7 to 10 days, and with repeat outburst, 1-2 days. If the disease reappears too often, it is recommended to take long-term antiviral medication. People infected with Type 2 HSV are more prone to repeat infections and outbursts.

    स्रोत : www.canadian.cz

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

    WHO fact sheet on sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), providing key facts, as a public health issue, infections and transmissions, STIs and women's health, adverse outcomes of pregnancy, HIV, STI syndromes, prevention, vaccination, mother-to-child transmission, WHO response.

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

    22 August 2022 العربية 中文 Français Русский Español

    Key facts

    More than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired every day worldwide, the majority of which are asymptomatic.

    Each year there are an estimated 374 million new infections with 1 of 4 curable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis.

    More than 500 million people 15–49 years are estimated to have a genital infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV or herpes) (1).

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with over 311 000 cervical cancer deaths each year (2).

    Almost 1 million pregnant women were estimated to be infected with syphilis in 2016, resulting in over 350 000 adverse birth outcomes (3).

    STIs have a direct impact on sexual and reproductive health through stigmatization, infertility, cancers and pregnancy complications and can increase the risk of HIV.

    Drug resistance is a major threat to reducing the burden of STIs worldwide.


    More than 30 different bacteria, viruses and parasites are known to be transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex. Some STIs can also be transmitted from mother-to-child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Eight pathogens are linked to the greatest incidence of STIs. Of these, 4 are currently curable: syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. The other 4 are incurable viral infections: hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus (HSV), HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV).

    In addition, emerging outbreaks of new infections that can be acquired by sexual contact such as monkeypox, Shigella sonnei, Neisseria meningitidis, Ebola and Zika, as well as re-emergence of neglected STIs such as lymphogranuloma venereum. These herald increasing challenges in the provision of adequate services for STIs prevention and control.

    Scope of the problem

    STIs have a profound impact on sexual and reproductive health worldwide.

    More than 1 million STIs are acquired every day. In 2020, WHO estimated 374 million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs: chlamydia (129 million), gonorrhoea (82 million), syphilis (7.1 million) and trichomoniasis (156 million). More than 490 million people were estimated to be living with genital herpes in 2016, and an estimated 300 million women have an HPV infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer and anal cancer among men who have sex with men. An estimated 296 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B globally.

    STIs can have serious consequences beyond the immediate impact of the infection itself.

    STIs like herpes, gonorrhoea and syphilis can increase the risk of HIV acquisition.

    Mother-to-child transmission of STIs can result in stillbirth, neonatal death, low-birth weight and prematurity, sepsis, neonatal conjunctivitis and congenital deformities.

    HPV infection causes cervical and other cancers.

    Hepatitis B resulted in an estimated 820 000 deaths in 2019, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. STIs such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia are major causes of pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in women.

    Prevention of STIs

    When used correctly and consistently, condoms offer one of the most effective methods of protection against STIs, including HIV. Although highly effective, condoms do not offer protection for STIs that cause extra-genital ulcers (i.e., syphilis or genital herpes). When possible, condoms should be used in all vaginal and anal sex.

    Safe and highly effective vaccines are available for 2 viral STIs: hepatitis B and HPV. These vaccines have represented major advances in STI prevention. By the end of 2020, the HPV vaccine had been introduced as part of routine immunization programmes in 111 countries, primarily high- and middle-income countries. To eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem globally, high coverage targets for HPV vaccination, screening and treatment of precancerous lesions, and management of cancer must be reached by 2030 and maintained at this high level for decades.

    Research to develop vaccines against genital herpes and HIV is advanced, with several vaccine candidates in early clinical development. There is mounting evidence suggesting that the vaccine to prevent meningitis (MenB) provides some cross-protection against gonorrhoea. More research into vaccines for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis are needed.

    Other biomedical interventions to prevent some STIs include adult voluntary medical male circumcision, microbicides, and partner treatment. There are ongoing trials to evaluate the benefit of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis of STIs and their potential safety weighed with antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

    Diagnosis of STIs

    STIs are often asymptomatic. When symptoms occur, they can be non-specific. Moreover, laboratory tests rely on blood, urine or anatomical samples. Three anatomical sites can carry at least one STI. These differences are modulated by sex and sexual risk. These differences can mean the diagnosis of STIs is often missed and individuals are frequently treated for 2 or more STIs.

    Accurate diagnostic tests for STIs (using molecular technology) are widely used in high-income countries. These are especially useful for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infections. However, they are largely unavailable in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Even in countries where testing is available, it is often expensive and not widely accessible. In addition, the time it takes for results to be received is often long. As a result, follow-up can be impeded and care or treatment can be incomplete.

    स्रोत : www.who.int

    Sexually Transmitted Infection Symptoms (STIs)

    Sexually transmitted infection symptoms include pain during sex or when urinating and pain in the pelvic area. For a full list of symptoms tap here.


    Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

    Table of Contents

    What are sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections you can get by having sex with someone who has an infection. These infections are usually passed from person to person through vaginal intercourse. They can also be passed through anal sex, oral sex, or skin-to-skin contact. STIs can be caused by viruses or bacteria. STIs caused by viruses include hepatitis B, herpes, HIV, and the human papilloma virus (HPV). STIs caused by bacteria include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.

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    How do I know if my partner has an STI?

    Ask. Although it may be uncomfortable, talk to your partner before having any sexual contact. Ask if he or she is at risk for having an STI. Some of the risk factors are having sex with several partners, using injected drugs and having had an STI in the past. To be safe, protect yourself no matter what the person says. You must also tell your partner if you have an STI. You aren’t doing yourself or your partner any favors by trying to hide it.

    Symptoms of STIs

    The most common symptoms of STIs include:

    Itching around the vagina and/or discharge from the vagina for women.

    Discharge from the penis for men.

    Pain during sex or when urinating.

    Pain in the pelvic area.

    Sore throats in people who have oral sex.

    Pain in or around the anus for people who have anal sex.

    Chancre sores (painless red sores) on the genital area, anus, tongue, and/or throat.

    A scaly rash on the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet.

    Dark urine, loose, light-colored stools, and yellow eyes and skin.

    Small blisters that turn into scabs on the genital area.

    Swollen glands, fever, and body aches.

    Unusual infections, unexplained fatigue, night sweats, and weight loss.

    Soft, flesh-colored warts around the genital area.


    Common Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

    Common Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)


    What causes STIs?

    If you’ve ever had sex, you may be at risk for having an STI. Your risk is higher if you have had many sex partners, have had sex with someone who has had many partners, or have had sex without using condoms.

    How are STIs diagnosed?

    Most STIs can be diagnosed through an exam by your doctor, a culture of the secretions from your vagina or penis, or through a blood test.

    Can STIs be prevented or avoided?

    The only sure way to prevent STIs is by not having sex. If you have sex, you can lower your risk of getting an STI by only having sex with someone who isn’t having sex with anyone else and who doesn’t have an STI.

    You should always use condoms when having sex, including oral and anal sex.

    Do condoms prevent STIs?

    Male latex condoms can reduce your risk of getting an STI if used correctly. Be sure to use them every time you have sex. Female condoms aren’t as effective as male condoms. However, you should use them when a man won’t use a male condom.

    Remember, though, that condoms aren’t 100% safe. They can’t protect you from coming into contact with some sores (such as those that can occur with herpes) or warts (which can be caused by HPV infection).

    How to use male condoms

    Put the condom on before any contact is made.

    Unroll the condom over an erect penis to the base of the penis. (Uncircumcised men should pull back their foreskin before unrolling.) The unrolled ring should be on the outside. Leave about 1/2 inch of space in the tip so semen can collect there. Squeeze the tip to get the air out.

    Pull out after ejaculating and before the penis gets soft. To pull out, hold the rim of the condom at the base of the penis to make sure it doesn’t slip off.

    Don’t reuse condoms.

    How to use female condoms

    Follow the directions on the condom package for correct placement. Be sure the inner ring goes as far into the vagina as it can. The outer ring stays outside the vagina.

    Guide the penis into the condom.

    After sex, remove the condom before standing up by gently pulling it out.

    Don’t reuse condoms.

    What else should I do to prevent STIs?

    Limit the number of sex partners you have. Ask your partner if he or she has, or has had, an STI. Tell your partner if you have had one. Talk about whether you’ve both been tested for STIs and whether you should be tested.

    Look for signs of an STI in your sex partner. But remember that STIs don’t always cause symptoms. Don’t have sex if you or your partner are being treated for an STI.

    Wash your genitals with soap and water and urinate soon after you have sex. This may help clean away some germs before they have a chance to infect you.

    Should I use a spermicide to help prevent STIs?

    No. It was once thought that spermicides with nonoxynol-9 could help prevent STIs much like they help prevent pregnancy — by damaging the organisms that cause the diseases. New research has shown that nonoxynol-9 can irritate a woman’s vagina and cervix, actually increasing the risk of STI infection.

    Be sure to check the ingredients of any other sex-related products you own, such as lubricants and condoms. Some brands of these products may have nonoxynol-9 added to them. If you are unsure if your spermicide or any other product contains nonoxynol-9, ask your doctor before using it.

    स्रोत : familydoctor.org

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