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    Animals in space

    Animals in space

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    Space pioneer Miss Baker, a squirrel monkey, rode a Jupiter IRBM (scale model shown) into space in 1959.

    Landmarks for animals in space

    1947: First animals in space (fruit flies)

    1949: First primate and first mammal in space

    1950: First mouse in space

    1951: First dogs in space

    1957: First animal in orbit

    1959: First rabbit in space

    1960: First animals to survive Earth orbit

    1961: First ape in space

    1961: First guinea pig in space

    1963: First cat in space

    1968: First animals in deep space and to circle the Moon

    1970: First frogs in space

    1973: First fish in space

    1973: First spiders in space

    2007: First animal survives exposure to space

    Animals in space originally served to test the survivability of spaceflight, before human spaceflights were attempted. Later, other non-human animals were flown to investigate various biological processes and the effects microgravity and space flight might have on them. Bioastronautics is an area of bioengineering research which spans the study and support of life in space. To date, seven national space programs have flown animals into space: the United States, Soviet Union, France, Argentina, China, Japan and Iran.

    A wide variety of animals have been launched into space, including monkeys and apes, dogs, cats, tortoises, mice, rats, rabbits, fish, frogs, spiders, and insects. The US launched flights carrying primates primarily between 1948 and 1961, with one flight in 1969 and one in 1985. France launched two monkey-carrying flights in 1967. The Soviet Union and Russia launched monkeys between 1983 and 1996. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviet space program used a number of dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights.[1]

    Two tortoises and several varieties of plants were the first inhabitants of Earth to circle the Moon, on the 1968 Zond 5 mission. In 1972 five mice, Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, and Phooey, orbited the Moon a record 75 times in Apollo 17's Command Module , the last crewed voyage to the Moon.

    Contents

    1 Background 2 Timeline 2.1 1940s 2.2 1950s 2.3 1960s 2.4 1970s 2.5 1980s 2.6 1990s 2.7 2000s 2.8 2010s 2.9 2020s 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

    Background[edit]

    Animals had been used in aeronautic exploration since 1783 when the Montgolfier brothers sent a sheep, a duck, and a rooster aloft in a hot air balloon to see if ground-dwelling animals can survive (the duck serving as the experimental control). The limited supply of captured German V-2 rockets led to the U.S. use of high-altitude balloon launches carrying fruit flies, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, cats, dogs, frogs, goldfish and monkeys to heights of up to 44,000 m (144,000 ft; 27 mi).[2] These high-altitude balloon flights from 1947 to 1960 tested radiation exposure, physiological response, life support and recovery systems. The U.S. high-altitude manned balloon flights occurred in the same time frame, one of which also carried fruit flies.

    Timeline[edit]

    V2 launch No. 47 carried the first mammal, a rhesus monkey named Albert II, into space on June 14, 1949

    1940s[edit]

    The first animals sent into space were fruit flies aboard a U.S.-launched V-2 rocket on 20 February 1947 from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.[2][3][4][5] The purpose of the experiment was to explore the effects of radiation exposure at high altitudes. The rocket reached 109 km (68 mi) in 3 minutes 10 seconds, past both the U.S. Air Force 80 km (50 mi) and the international 100 km definitions of the boundary of space. The Blossom capsule was ejected and successfully deployed its parachute. The fruit flies were recovered alive. Other V-2 missions carried biological samples, including moss.

    Albert II, a rhesus monkey, became the first monkey, first primate, and first mammal in space on 14 June 1949, in a U.S.-launched V-2, after the failure of the original Albert's mission on ascent. Albert I reached only 48–63 km (30–39 mi) altitude; Albert II reached about 134 km (83 mi). Albert II died on impact after a parachute failure.

    Numerous monkeys of several species were flown by the U.S. in the 1950s and 1960s. Monkeys were implanted with sensors to measure vital signs, and many were under anesthesia during launch. The death rate among these monkeys was very high: about two-thirds of all monkeys launched in the 1940s and 1950s died on missions or soon after landing.[6]

    1950s[edit]

    14:33

    , a 1953 US Air Force film featuring two mice and two monkeys in a 37-mile high subspace flight

    On 31 August 1950, the U.S. launched a mouse into space (137 km) aboard a V-2 (the Albert V flight, which, unlike the Albert I-IV flights, did not have a monkey), however the animal died following descent because the parachute system failed.[7] The U.S. launched several other mice in the 1950s.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    What was the first animal in space?

    Since the very beginning of space exploration, animals have been used in space programmes

    Since the very beginning of space exploration, animals have been used in space programmes. Find out what pioneering animals travelled in space, and which was the first to orbit the Earth.

    What was the first animal in space? 

    While many flights into space may have accidentally carried bacteria and other forms of life on board, the first living creatures intentionally sent into space were fruit flies. These were transported aboard a V2 rocket on 20 February 1947.

    The fruit flies were launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico as part of a research mission. The unnamed rocket travelled 67 miles into the air before parachuting back to Earth. NASA currently recognises the altitude of 66 miles (100km) as the point where space officially begins. Therefore, the fruit flies are considered the first animals ever to reach the final frontier.

    The V2 rockets were the world's first long-range guided missiles and were used by Germany during World War II. The missiles could fly at a top speed of 3,500 miles per hour and strike targets over 200 miles away. Following the war, the US seized many of these rockets and used them for research purposes, laying the groundwork for future space launches. Wernher von Braun, who designed the V2 was even involved in the designing of the Saturn V rocket for NASA.

    The flies were the perfect passengers for the flight as their compact size, and relatively light weight made their storage easy and conserved on fuel consumption.

    At the time, little was known as to the effects of cosmic radiation on organic matter. As fruit flies have a similar genetic make-up to humans, they were seen as an eligible subject for testing and research. On the safe recovery of the flies' capsule, the scientists found that the flies' genetics had not been mutated by the radiation, which paved the way for future human spaceflight.

    What was the first animal to orbit the Earth?

    In the 1940s and 1950s, the Soviet Union and US space programmes sent numerous species of animals into space, including monkeys, mice and dogs. However, these were suborbital flights, which meant the spacecraft passed into outer space before falling back to Earth without making an orbit.

    The first animal to make an orbital spaceflight around the Earth was the dog Laika, aboard the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 on 3 November 1957.

    Laika

    Laika was a young, part-Samoyed terrier found as a stray in Moscow. She was chosen as the Soviet scientists believed a homeless animal would be better equipped to endure the cold, hunger and harsh conditions of space travel. However, with inadequate oxygen and food supplies, Laika’s death in space was expected from the outset of the mission.

    In their training before the launch, the canine candidates were placed in a series of demanding endurance trials and medical examinations. Among other tests, scientists examined how the animals would cope in the distressingly cramped space capsule. Laika and two other dogs (Albina and Mushka) were placed in increasingly smaller cages over several weeks. With her calm temperament and grace under pressure, Laika was chosen. Vladimir Yazdovsky, the leader of the Soviet space mission, described Laika as “quiet and charming.”

    Laika’s spacecraft, Sputnik 2 was fitted with a variety of innovative devices to keep her alive. There was an oxygen generator which absorbed carbon dioxide, a heat-activated fan to regulate the temperature and the capsule was stocked with enough food to keep the dog alive for seven days.

    There are conflicting accounts of Laika’s death in space. The Soviet Union initially suggested she had died when the oxygen levels depleted or that she had been deliberately ‘put to sleep’ with poisoned food. In 1999 several Russian sources (such as the scientists involved in the space programme) stated that Laika had died on the fourth orbit of the Earth after a failure in Sputnik 2’s temperature controls. On 14 April 1958 (after approximately 2,570 orbits), Sputnik 2 and Laika’s remains left orbit and disintegrated on re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere.

    In 2008, nearly 50 years after the historic flight, a monument to Laika was finally installed outside Star City, a military facility in Russia where she was trained for her trip. The statue resembles a rocket that merges into a hand, launching Laika into space.

    Laika - The first dog in space

    Animals that went to space

    As well as the fruit flies and Laika, since the 1940s, a variety of animals have been sent into space including ants, cats, frogs, and even jellyfish.

    To date, a total of 32 monkeys have flown in space. These species include rhesus macaques, squirrel monkeys and pig-tailed monkeys. Chimpanzees have also flown.

    On 4 June 1949, Albert II became the first monkey in space, but he died on reentry when the parachute to his capsule failed. Two other monkeys, Albert III and IV also died when their rockets failed.

    A mouse was launched into space on 15 August 1950 but did not survive the return journey.

    In the 1950s, the US and the Soviet Union launched a total of 12 dogs on various suborbital flights, Laika being the first.

    On 31 January 1961, the first hominid was launched into space. A chimpanzee named Ham was part of the US-led Mercury space programme. A main part of the mission was to test whether tasks could be performed in space, the results of which were instrumental when launching the first American in space, Alan Shepard, on 5 May 1961.

    स्रोत : www.rmg.co.uk

    10 animals that have been to space

    Animals were the early pioneers of space flight, often losing their lives. But what animals have been in space, and how many animals have died in space?

    10 animals that have been to space

    Animals were the early pioneers of space flight, taking one giant leap into space, and often losing their lives in the process. But what animals have been in space, and how many animals have died in space?

    By Christina Harrison

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    In July 1969, Apollo 11 launched into space and Neil Armstrong and ‘Buzz’ Aldrin successfully performed the first crewed lunar landing. Television images of the men taking humankind’s very first steps on the moon’s surface were broadcast into the homes of millions around the world. But there were many animals that paved the way to this momentous occasion, and many that furthered astronautical studies afterwards.

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    What animals have been into space?

    1

    Fruit flies

    The first animal in space was launched in 1947. And, perhaps surprisingly, it was the humble fruit fly. American scientists were trying to establish the impact that cosmic radiation might potentially have on astronauts in the future – they chose flies because they are genetically similar to humans.

    A V-2 ballistic missile, recovered from the Nazis at the end of world war II, was loaded with the fruit flies and travelled 109km into the air – the distance at which space officially begins. On its descent back to Earth, a capsule containing the flies was parachuted down to New Mexico.

    On opening the capsule, the scientists found the flies alive, with no evidence of the effects of radiation. It was the start of a long line of astronaut animals to come.

    2

    Monkeys and apes

    Enos, a 5 1/2 year old space chimpanzee reclines in the flight couch. © Bettman/Getty

    Incredibly, 32 monkeys and apes have been to space, including the rhesus macaque, pig-tailed monkey, cynomolgus monkey, squirrel-tailed monkey and chimpanzee.

    The very first was a rhesus macaque called Albert II. In 1949, he reached 134km, but died on impact when re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere due to a parachute failure.

    He was preceded a year earlier by Albert I, who suffocated within his cramped capsule before it had even left the ground.

    The first great ape in space was Ham, a chimpanzee launched into space by NASA on 31 January 1961. Ham returned safely to Earth, where he lived until 1983.

    3

    Mice

    White mouse. © Joe Zellner/Getty

    These rodents have long been used to find out more about how space travel will affect the human body. In fact, NASA has recently published a detailed study of mice housed at the International Space Station. It shows that mice quickly adapt to microgravity conditions.

    The very first mouse went into space in 1950, reaching an altitude of 137km. However, unlike the fruit flies, the mouse died when the rocket disintegrated due to a parachute failure.

    4

    Dogs

    Laika was the first animal to orbit the Earth. © Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images

    A number of dogs have gone into space under the former Soviet Union. The most well-known was Laika in 1957. She was picked up off the streets as a stray mongrel puppy in Moscow and deemed suitable because of her gentle temperament. The scientists also believed a stray would be better at coping with adverse conditions.

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    Listen to this BBC World Service Witness History series episode about Laika.

    Though other dogs had been launched into space before her, Laika is famous for being the first animal to orbit the Earth. However, she was never to return.

    She was sent off with just one meal and a seven-day oxygen supply. The Soviet government claimed she survived for seven days. The reality: Laika overheated and died just five hours into the flight.

    5

    Tortoises

    You might think that tortoises are the last animal to turn to in a race, but they played an important role in the Space Race, In 1968, the race was on between the USA and the Soviet Union to land a man on the moon. The Russians launched the Zond 5 spaceship with a capsule carrying samples of soil and seeds, some worms and two steppe tortoises.

    The tortoises completed a circuit around the moon and, after six days, returned to Earth. Though the plan had been for Zond 5 to land in Kazakhstan, the capsule veered off course and was eventually retrieved from the Indian Ocean. Thankfully, the tortoises were still alive, though they had lost weight by 10 per cent.

    स्रोत : www.discoverwildlife.com

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