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    which of these styles of paintings is a tribal art form that traditionally has white figures on a red ochre background?

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    Warli painting

    Warli painting

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    Warli paintings at Sanskriti Kendra Museum, Anandagram, New Delhi

    Warli Paintings in Mysore

    Warli painting is a form of tribal art mostly created by the tribal people from the North Sahyadri Range in Maharashtra, India. This range encompasses cities such as Dahanu, Talasari, Jawhar, Palghar, Mokhada, and Vikramgad of Palghar district. This tribal art was originated in Maharashtra, where it is still practiced today.

    Contents

    1 Tradition

    2 Painting technique

    2.1 Materials used

    3 In contemporary culture

    4 Traditional knowledge and intellectual property

    5 References 6 External links

    Tradition[edit]

    The Warli Painting tradition in Maharashtra are among the finest examples of the folk style of paintings. The Warli tribe is one of the largest in India, located outside Mumbai . Warli paintings of Maharashtra revolve around the marriage of God Palghat.The style of Warli painting was not recognised until the 1970s, even though the tribal style of art is thought to date back as early as 10th century A.D.[1] The Warli culture is centered on the concept of Mother Nature and elements of nature are often focal points depicted in Warli painting. Farming is their main way of life and a large source of food for the tribe. They greatly respect nature and wildlife for the resources that they provide for life.[2] Warli artists use their clay huts as the backdrop for their paintings, similar to how ancient people used cave walls as their canvases.

    Jivya Soma Mashe, the artist in Thane district has played a great role in making the Warli paintings more popular. He has been honoured with a number of national and central level awards for his paintings. In the year 2011, he was awarded Padmashree.

    Painting technique[edit]

    A tarpa player c.1885

    These rudimentary wall paintings use a set of basic geometric shapes: a circle, a triangle, and a square. These shapes are symbolic of different elements of nature. The circle and the triangle come from their observation of nature. The circle represents the sun and the moon, while the triangle depicts mountains and conical trees. In contrast, the square renders to be a human invention, indicating a sacred enclosure or a piece of land. The central motif in each ritual painting is the square, known as the "chauk" or "chaukat", mostly of two types known as and . Inside a is usually a depiction of , the mother goddess, symbolizing fraternity.[3]

    Male gods are unusual among the Warli and are frequently related to spirits which have taken human shape. The central motif in the ritual painting is surrounded by scenes portraying hunting, fishing, and farming, and trees and animals. Festivals and dances are common scenes depicted in the ritual paintings. People and animals are represented by two inverse triangles joined at their tips: the upper triangle depicts the torso and the lower triangle the pelvis. Their precarious equilibrium symbolizes the balance of the universe. The representation also has the practical and amusing advantage of animating the bodies. Another main theme of Warli art is the denotation of a triangle that is larger at the top, representing a man; and a triangle which is wider at the bottom, representing a woman.[4][] Apart from ritualistic paintings, other Warli paintings covered day-to-day activities of the village people.

    One of the central aspects depicted in many Warli paintings is the tarpa dance. The tarpa, a trumpet-like instrument, is played in turns by different village men. Men and women entwine their hands and move in a circle around the tarpa player. The dancers then follow him, turning and moving as he turns, never turning their backs to the tarpa. The musician plays two different notes, which direct the head dancer to either move clockwise or counterclockwise. The tarpa player assumes a role similar to that of a snake charmer, and the dancers become the figurative snake. The dancers take a long turn in the audience and try to encircle them for entertainment. The circle formation of the dancers is also said to resemble the circle of life.

    Warli painting from Thane district

    Materials used[edit]

    The simple pictorial language of Warli painting is matched by a rudimentary technique. The ritual paintings are usually created on the inside walls of village huts. The walls are made of a mixture of branches, earth and red brick that make a red ochre background for the paintings. The Warli only paint with a white pigment made from a mixture of rice flour and water, with gum as a binder. A bamboo stick is chewed at the end to give it the texture of a paintbrush. Walls are painted only to mark special occasions such as weddings, festivals or harvests. They make it with a sense that it can be seen by future generations.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Tribal Arts of India

    10 Tribal Arts of India: Types of Folk and Tribal Paintings in India

    10 Tribal Arts of India: Types of Folk and Tribal Paintings in India

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    India has always been known for its art and architecture. The history of India in terms of art is very immense. Almost every state has its art which has its speciality. And the art by tribal communities of India is the most vibrant. These tribal arts were rich in symbolic aspects as they had very specific rituals and characteristics. Let's find out more about these tribal arts.

    Here are 10 Tribal Arts of India:

    Warli Folk Paintings

    Tanjore Paintings or Thanjavur Paintings

    Madhubani Art Saura Paintings Bhil Art Gond

    Pattachitra Paintings

    Kalamazethu Art Khovar Art Kavad or Kawad Art

    1. Warli Folk Paintings

    Source

    Belonging to the state of Maharashtra, this tribal art is famous for its elementary wall paintings. It is one of the finest examples of folk paintings. In this, basic geometrical shapes are used such as- square, circle, triangle. These paintings are carved in white colour (bamboo used as a brush) on a dark red coloured background. The painting portrays hunting, festivals, fishing, farming, dancing and other scenes of daily life.

    2. Tanjore Painting or Thanjavur Painting

    Source

    Originating from the town of Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, this tribal art is a celebration of the region's rich artistic tradition. This art was first developed in the late 16th century. This classical South-Indian painting style is famous for their use of vibrant colours, glass, stones and gold foils in the work. They are made on a wooden board which is made either from teak wood or jackfruit. These paintings mostly depict Hindu Gods and Goddesses. The faces of the deity are made such that they have a round face, oval-shaped eyes. After this, the main body of the deity is enclosed using an arch, curtain, etc.

    3. Madhubani Art

    Source

    Madhubani is an Indian art formed by the women of Mithila. Also referred to as Mithila art, it is originated from Bihar. The paintings are made on freshly plastered mud walls, which generally depicts nature or religious intent. It involves pictures of Shiva, Krishna, Saraswati, Rama, Durga, Sun, Moon, trees, flowers, animals, wedding scenes etc. The painting is completed using brushes, twigs, fingers, match-sticks with natural dyes and pigments etc. The main aim of this painting is to cover every inch, gaps with all possible patterns, shapes, designs.

    4. Saura Paintings

    Source

    Saura is a style of mural paintings which is related to the Saura tribe of Odisha. These paintings also originated from the state of Orissa but it is also found in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand. They are also called Ikons. The backdrop of the painting is prepared from red or yellow ochre which is painted using brush and bamboo. Very simple figures are used which depict the simple yet meaningful everyday life of a village farmer. These paintings are similar to Warli paintings. The only difference between the two is the use of geometrical figures. These paintings are drawn during marriage, child-birth or any other special occasion.

    5. Bhil Art

    Source

    Bhils are the second largest tribal community of India. Bhil art is also given by them. Originating from the states of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra. This art unveils the life of Bhils themself. This tribe used dots to depict life in vibrant colours. They try to connect their art and paintings with their Gods, Goddesses and nature. This includes carving of the Sun, Moon, nature, Gods, etc. from natural and herbal colours on walls or paper. One can easily understand the story behind the painting.

    6. Gond

    Source

    Originated from the state of Madhya Pradesh and nearby states, this art is carved on the mud walls. These paintings are rich in details, lines, colours, mystery and humour. These paintings are also drawn on paper, canvas, cloths etc. In these paintings, lines, dots and dashes are important features. This painting is drawn during major festivals such as Holi, Diwali, etc. These paintings are so good in quality that they can last for about 20 years even without any tampering.

    7. Pattachitra Painting

    स्रोत : www.holidify.com

    THE HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF WARLI PAINTING

    Warli paintings are believed to be one of the oldest form of art in history. It is a form of tribal art which owes its origin to the state of Maharashtra in India. This art is very popular among the…

    THE HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF WARLI PAINTING

    WARLI PAINTING

    Warli paintings are believed to be one of the oldest form of art in history. It is a form of tribal art which owes its origin to the state of Maharashtra in India. This art is very popular among the tribal community, however till date it has not gained any special recognition outside India.Warli painting is a style of tribal art mostly created by the tribal people from the North Sahyadri Range in India. This range encompasses cities such as Dahanu, Talasari, Jawhar, Palghar, Mokhada, and Vikramgadh of Palghar district. This tribal art was originated in Maharashtra, where it is still practiced today.HISTORY

    The Warli tribe is one of the largest in India, located outside of Mumbai. Despite being close to one of the largest cities in India, the Warli reject much of contemporary culture. The style of Warli painting was not recognised until the 1970s, even though the tribal style of art is thought to date back as early as 10th century A.D. The Warli culture is centered around the concept of Mother Nature and elements of nature are often focal points depicted in Warli painting. Farming is their main way of life and a large source of food for the tribe. They greatly respect nature and wildlife for the resources that they provide for life.]Warli artists use their clay huts as the backdrop for their paintings, similar to how ancient people used cave walls as their canvases.

    Unassuming Warli figures painted in white on red ochre walls might not seem like much to the untrained eye. But a closer look will tell you that there’s more to Warli than what meets the eye. It is not just an art form, but a way of life for the Warli (Varli) tribes from the mountains and coastal regions in and around the borders of Maharashtra and Gujarat. This art form that originated around 3000 BC has an enigmatic appeal to it.The intricate geometric patterns of flowers, wedding rituals, hunting scenes and other everyday activities are quite popular among fashion designers and home décor brands. Those from the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra surely have a sense of sentiment attached to the art form as they’ve seen it on the walls of rural schools and homes way before they became popular on modern lifestyle products. The simple, yet beautifully delicate patterns have a certain raw appeal about them.

    Warli in everyday life

    With the back-to-the-roots movement taking over every part of our lives, art lovers flaunt the Warli motif with pride. Traditionally, this painting is done on a red ochre background with white paint and these are the only two colours used. But, today, a variety of colours are being used to replicate these artistic motifs on fabrics, home décor or other artistic forms.

    Not just an art

    Warli art to some extent makes us think of being environmentally conscious and finding joy in simple things of life. The Warli people lead fairly simple lives. Earlier, they worshipped nature and depended on nature for food and everyday living. They did not believe in disrupting nature or taking more than they needed. The Warli people believe in harmony between nature and man, and these beliefs are often reflected in their paintings.

    This train of thought also holds true for our lives today. A lot of urban folk are now adopting a minimalist lifestyle by staying away from technology whenever possible, eating clean, embracing handloom and taking a closer look at science behind ancient customs and traditions. So, it isn’t much of a surprise that traditional art forms like Warli are making their way back into our society to remind us of the simple pleasures of life.

    The tribes have also used Warli paintings to impart knowledge. Today, it stands tall among other forms of painting with Maharashtrian artists like Jivya Mashe and his sons Balu and Sadashiv striving hard to keep the art form alive. In fact, Mashe was awarded the Padma Shri in 2011 for making the art form popular in international circuits.

    Keeping the art alive

    In February 2016, a group of Japanese artists adopted the Ganjad village in Palghar district in an effort to keep the art form alive. This group of social artists from Japan have also been constructing huts from cow dung, mud and bamboo sticks to promote painting on the walls. Dahanu is another village that has managed to keep Warli art alive. In a world of excesses, unpretentiousness is a rarity and this art form keeps that belief alive. So, purchasing and promoting hand-painted Warli items seems like a fitting tribute to this one-of-a-kind art form. And while you’re at it, you might want learn a thing or two from their way of living.

    स्रोत : medium.com

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