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    Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016

    An exhaustive article which talks about the objective, features, critical appraisal, and suggestions regarding the Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016.

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    Biomedical Waste Management Rules

    Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016

    By Diganth Raj Sehgal -

    June 15, 2020 6142 0 Facebook Twitter Pinterest WhatsApp


    Table of Contents


    Hospitals and various other laboratories engender a wide range and a significant quantity of wastes (including biomedical or infectious waste) that has the ability to give rise to various health problems and environmental hazards. Generally in India, 1-2 kg waste per bed per day in a hospital and 600 gm waste per day per bed in a clinic is generated, out of which more than 15% is hazardous or infectious and this hazardous waste is mixed with remaining waste which results into the contamination of the entire waste. This is why proper, effective, and efficient rules and regulations are needed for segregation and disposal of waste. The sustainable management of these wastes is the social and legal responsibility of the government as well as the public at large. So these wastes have to be properly collected, transported, and disposed of in order to safeguard the environment, and to streamline these activities various guidelines and rules were published by the Government of India in 1998 known as the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998.

    These rules are continuously monitored, altered, and updated from time to time as effective management is necessary for a cleaner and greener environment. In 2016, the Government of India decided to publish a new set of rules, Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016, supervening the old one with various changes and additions in order to improve the collection, segregation, treatment, and disposal facilities of these biomedical waste produced by the hospitals and laboratories to mitigate the environmental pollution. The treatment technologies identified include incineration, microwaving, autoclaving, and chemical treatment. This article includes the objective, salient features, and suggestions regarding the new rules i.e. Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016.

    Biomedical waste 

    Biomedical waste (hereinafter BMW) is defined under the rules as any waste produced during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human or animal research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biological or in health camps.

    In simple words, these wastes include animal anatomical waste, human waste, medical apparatus like syringes, needles, and other materials used in hospitals and other laboratories(research center, nursing homes, blood bank, pathological laboratories, etc) in the process of research and treatment.

    Biomedical wastes are divided into four color category:

    Yellow: In this category, eight types of waste are categorized- Human anatomical waste, animal anatomical waste, soiled waste, expired or discarded waste, chemical waste, chemical liquid waste(separate collection system leading to effluent treatment system), discarded linen, mattresses, beddings contaminated with blood or body fluid, and microbiology, biotechnology, and other clinical laboratory waste.

    Red: It includes contaminated waste that is recyclable like waste generated from disposable items such as tubing, bottles, intravenous tubes and sets, urine bags, syringes, and gloves.

    White(Translucent): It includes waste sharps including metals (includes used, contaminated and discarded metal sharps)

    Blue: It includes broken or contaminated or discarded glass and metallic body implants.

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    The main objective of these rules is based on the concept of 3Rs, namely, reduce, recycle, and reuse. It aims to delimit the waste, recover or reuse it as much as possible, and avoid disposing of it. The waste should be tackled at the origin or at source rather than the “end of pipe approach”.

    These guidelines mainly focus on the application and implementation of rules and regulations for the betterment of the environment as well as the people. In these rules, it was explicitly mentioned that these guidelines don’t apply to hazardous chemicals, municipal solid waste, radioactive waste, lead-acid batteries, e-waste, genetically engineered organisms, and cells, and hazardous microorganisms which are governed under other rules. The important elements of the rules are training to workers, health checkups, immunization, and occupation safety of the workers.

    As per the Indian government data, the total biomedical waste generated is 484 tonnes per day from 1,68,869 health care facilities in the country but only 447 tonnes per day is treated. There are only 198 common biomedical waste treatment facilities in operation. The number of healthcare facilities using common biomedical waste treatment facilities is 1,31,837 and approximately 21870 health care facilities have their own treatment facilities on-site. To overcome this problem, these stringent rules have been notified by the government and to ensure no pilferage of recyclables items occurs.

    स्रोत : blog.ipleaders.in

    Keeping in pace with the new Biomedical Waste Management Rules: What we need to know!

    Biomedical Waste Management Rules were first implemented in our country on 20th July 1998. Thereafter, the rules have undergone periodic updates and amendments in the years 2003 and 2011. Latest Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016, and (Amendment) ...

    Med J Armed Forces India. 2019 Jul; 75(3): 240–245.

    Published online 2019 Apr 15. doi: 10.1016/j.mjafi.2018.12.003

    PMCID: PMC6676673 PMID: 31388224

    Keeping in pace with the new Biomedical Waste Management Rules: What we need to know!

    Gurpreet Singh Bhalla,a Kuntal Bandyopadhyay,b,∗ and Kavita Sahaic

    Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer

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    Biomedical Waste Management Rules were first implemented in our country on 20th July 1998. Thereafter, the rules have undergone periodic updates and amendments in the years 2003 and 2011. Latest Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016, and (Amendment) Rules, 2018, were an update and simplification of BMW disposal as compared with the previous version, keeping in pace with the changes in the requirements of the health-care setup. Although exhaustive, numerous medical devices/products/kits did not find any mention even in the latest amendment of the rules. Thus, this article aims to bring out the key points to be known by all health-care workers and the gray areas which require clarification and inclusion in the rules for a completeness of the said rules.

    Keywords: BMW Management Rules, 1998; BMW Management Rules, 2016; BMW Management (Amendment) Rules, 2018; Health care workers; Colour-coded disposal

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    Biomedical waste (BMW) is defined as any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or vaccination of human beings or animals or in research or in the use of biological or in health camps.1 It involves all persons and institutes which generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose, or handle any form of BMW. On an average, the hospital waste generation rate ranges from 0.5 to 2.0 kg/bed/day which amounts to about 0.33 million tons annually.2 Of the total BMW, about 75% and 90% of the waste is non-hazardous or general healthcare waste. The remaining 10%–25% of BMW is regarded as hazardous, and if not managed properly, it can spread highly contagious diseases of which the most dangerous ones are hepatitis B, HIV-AIDS, and hepatitis C, thus a grave health hazard for current and future generations. It is also a threat to the environment, causing air, water, and soil pollution.3, 4

    Past studies have reported that health-care workers in our nation are not entirely aware of proper BMW segregation and further disposal. There is an increasing awareness about BMW handling and disposal globally.5 In our nation, widespread publicity is required as evidenced from studies from various parts of our nation that suggest gaps in knowledge and lacunae in attitudes and practices are still prevalent to a worrying extent among the various categories of health-care workers.4, 5 BMW management guidelines have been frequently amended,1, 6 in addition, with lack of self-update has contributed to the increase in knowledge gap.

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    Biomedical waste management rules

    BMW Management Rules were implemented in our country on 20th July 1998 under the Environment Protection Act, 1986. These were followed by amendments in 2000 and draft amendments in 2003 and 2011. As per these rules, BMW was divided into ten categories (later reduced to eight). Multiple categories of waste were clubbed to be disposed into the four color coded bags. This was very confusing and difficult to remember, especially by the housekeeping staff, which formed the weakest link in the BMW management.5 The occupiers had their own treatment facilities (such as incinerator, burial pits, etc.) for the final disposal of BMW. It was found that up to 82% of the health-care facilities had no credible BMW management or required significant improvement,7 thereby posing a threat to public and environment.

    To address these issues, new BMW Management Rules were notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change on 28th March 2016 under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.8 The ambit of these rules includes all facilities generating BMW such as vaccination camps, surgical camps, first aid rooms, and so on. All health-care establishments in Armed Forces come under the purview of these rules.

    The major changes are as follows: (1) the removal of multiple categories and to continue with only four color-codes (2) that no occupier was permitted to establish an on-site treatment and disposal facility if service of a common biomedical waste treatment facility (CBMWTF) is available within a distance of 75 km, and (3) changes in the form numbers of accident reporting, authorization, annual reporting, and appeal. The salient differences between the BMW Management Rules published in 1998 and 2016 are mentioned in Table 1.

    Table 1

    Salient differences between BMW Management Rules 1998 and 2016. (Amended and reproduced with permission).1

    Points BMW management rules, 1998 BMW management rules, 2016

    Duties of the occupier Duties of the occupier not delineated better

    No pretreatment of waste on-site

    Chlorinated plastic bags, gloves, and blood bags were recommended

    ETP not mandatory

    The details of records not mandatory

    The annual report need not to be posted on website

    BMWM committee not compulsory

    Records not compulsory to maintain Duties of the occupier are delineated better

    There is pretreatment by disinfection and sterilization on-site of infectious lab waste blood bags as per the WHO guidelines

    स्रोत : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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