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    which one of the following is the objective of kyoto protocol

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    What is the Kyoto Protocol?

    The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997. Owing to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently, the...

    What is the Kyoto Protocol?

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    The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997. Owing to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently, there are 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.

    In short, the Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets. The Convention itself only asks those countries to adopt policies and measures on mitigation and to report periodically.

    The Kyoto Protocol is based on the principles and provisions of the Convention and follows its annex-based structure. It only binds developed countries, and places a heavier burden on them under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities”, because it recognizes that they are largely responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere.

    In its Annex B, the Kyoto Protocol sets binding emission reduction targets for 37 industrialized countries and economies in transition and the European Union. Overall, these targets add up to an average 5 per cent emission reduction compared to 1990 levels over the five year period 2008–2012 (the first commitment period).

    Doha Amendment

    In Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012, the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted for a second commitment period, starting in 2013 and lasting until 2020.

    As of 28 October 2020, 147 Parties deposited their instrument of acceptance, therefore the threshold of 144 instruments of acceptance for entry into force of the Doha Amendment was achieved.  The amendment entered into force on 31 December 2020.

    The amendment includes:

    New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020;

    A revised list of GHG to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period; and

    Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto Protocol which specifically referenced issues pertaining to the first commitment period and which needed to be updated for the second commitment period.

    On 21 December 2012, the amendment was circulated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, acting in his capacity as Depositary, to all Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Protocol.

    During the first commitment period, 37 industrialized countries and economies in transition and the European Community committed to reduce GHG emissions to an average of five percent against 1990 levels. During the second commitment period, Parties committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18 percent below 1990 levels in the eight-year period from 2013 to 2020; however, the composition of Parties in the second commitment period is different from the first.

    The Kyoto mechanisms

    One important element of the Kyoto Protocol was the establishment of flexible market mechanisms, which are based on the trade of emissions permits. Under the Protocol, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Protocol also offers them an additional means to meet their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms:

    International Emissions Trading

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    Joint implementation (JI)

    These mechanisms ideally encourage GHG abatement to start where it is most cost-effective, for example, in the developing world. It does not matter where emissions are reduced, as long as they are removed from the atmosphere. This has the parallel benefits of stimulating green investment in developing countries and including the private sector in this endeavour to cut and hold steady GHG emissions at a safe level. It also makes leap-frogging—that is, the possibility of skipping the use of older, dirtier technology for newer, cleaner infrastructure and systems, with obvious longer-term benefits—more economical.

    Monitoring emission targets

    The Kyoto Protocol also established a rigorous monitoring, review and verification system, as well as a compliance system to ensure transparency and hold Parties to account. Under the Protocol, countries' actual emissions have to be monitored and precise records have to be kept of the trades carried out.

    Registry systems track and record transactions by Parties under the mechanisms. The UN Climate Change Secretariat, based in Bonn, Germany, keeps an international transaction log to verify that transactions are consistent with the rules of the Protocol.

    Reporting is done by Parties by submitting annual emission inventories and national reports under the Protocol at regular intervals.

    A compliance system ensures that Parties are meeting their commitments and helps them to meet their commitments if they have problems doing so.

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    Kyoto & Montreal Protocol

    This set of Energy & Environment Management Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Kyoto Protocol and Montreal Protocol”. 1. Based on what the Kyoto Protocol set emission reduction targets for the group of greenhouse gases? a) Hydrogen equivalents b) Carbon dioxide equivalents c) Oxygen equivalents d) Nitrogen equivalents 2. Under how many agreements ... Read more

    Energy and Environment Management Questions and Answers – Kyoto Protocol and Montreal Protocol

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    This set of Energy & Environment Management Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Kyoto Protocol and Montreal Protocol”.

    1. Based on what the Kyoto Protocol set emission reduction targets for the group of greenhouse gases?

    a) Hydrogen equivalents

    b) Carbon dioxide equivalents

    c) Oxygen equivalents

    d) Nitrogen equivalents

    View Answer

    2. Under how many agreements fluorochemicals are regulated?

    a) One b) Two c) Three d) Four View Answer

    3. With minor exception, which of the following have been phased out completely globally?

    a) Carbon dioxide b) Carbon monoxide

    c) Chlorofluorocarbons

    d) Nitrogen dioxide View Answer

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    4. For what production and consumption phase out schedules the Montreal Protocol has established?

    a) Greenhouse emitting gases

    b) Global warming emitting gases

    c) Ozone layer depleting substances

    d) Water level increasing substances

    View Answer

    5. How can be determined carbon dioxide equivalents?

    a) By multiplying the quantity of the gas by its global warming potential

    b) By multiplying the quantity of the gas by its pressure

    c) By multiplying the quantity of the water by its global warming potential

    d) By multiplying the quantity of the gas by its global cooling potential

    View Answer

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    6. The Montreal Protocol is less known for its role in climate protection.

    a) True b) False View Answer

    7. When did the Kyoto Protocol entered into force?

    a) 1997 b) 2000 c) 2005 d) 2009 View Answer advertisement

    8. When is the first commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol expired?

    a) 2007 b) 2010 c) 2012 d) 2015 View Answer

    9. When did the Montreal Protocol entered into force?

    a) 1984 b) 1986 c) 1989 d) 1994 View Answer advertisement

    10. What are the substances present in the ozone layer depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol?

    a) Either chlorine or bromine

    b) Either carbon or nitrogen

    c) Either chlorine or carbon

    d) Either carbon or bromine

    View Answer

    11. Why hydrofluorocarbons are no harm to the ozone layer?

    a) Because they contain chlorine

    b) Because they do not contain chlorine

    c) Because they contain carbon

    d) Because they contain nitrogen

    View Answer

    12. Which Amendment was agreed to phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol?

    a) Paris Amendment

    b) New York Amendment

    c) Delhi Amendment d) Kigali Amendment View Answer

    13. Which one of the following is the objective of Kyoto Protocol?

    a) Stabilization and reconstruction of greenhouse gases

    b) Protecting the ozone layer from depletion

    c) Reducing the CFCs and HFCs usage

    d) Increasing the greenhouse gases

    View Answer

    14. The Montreal Protocol is the successful climate agreement.

    a) True b) False View Answer

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    Kyoto Protocol MCQ [Free PDF]

    Get Kyoto Protocol Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ Quiz) with answers and detailed solutions. Download these Free Kyoto Protocol MCQ Quiz Pdf and prepare for your upcoming exams Like Banking, SSC, Railway, UPSC, State PSC.

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    Kyoto Protocol MCQ Quiz - Objective Question with Answer for Kyoto Protocol - Download Free PDF

    Last updated on Nov 16, 2022

    Latest Kyoto Protocol MCQ Objective Questions

    Kyoto Protocol Question 1:

    One of the following statements is incorrect regarding Kyoto protocol

    UNO conducted this meeting

    Limiting the emission of green house gases up to 5.2%

    Protect mother earth

    Find out the reasons for population explosion

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 2 : Limiting the emission of green house gases up to 5.2%

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    Kyoto Protocol Question 1 Detailed Solution

    Kyoto Protocol is what “operationalizes” the Convention. It commits industrialized countries to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions based on the principles of the Convention.Key Points 

    In 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (COP 11).

    Kyoto protocol aimed to cut emissions of greenhouse gases across the developed world by about 5% by 2012 compared with 1990 levels.

    Its goal is to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to “a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”.

    Additional Information 

    India ratified Kyoto Protocol in 2002.

    The Kyoto Protocol came into force in February 2005.

    There are currently 192 Parties in Kyoto Protocol.

    Canada withdrew its name from the Kyoto protocol in 2012.

    Kyoto Protocol is the only global treaty with binding limits on GHG emissions.

    Thus, we can conclude that the Kyoto protocol limits greenhouse gas emissions up to 5%, not 5.2%.

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    Kyoto Protocol Question 2:

    Given below are two statements:

    Statement I: The Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

    Statement II: It is an agreement between African countries and economies in transition.

    In the light of the above statement choose the correct answer from the options given below:

    Both Statement I and statement II are correct

    Both Statement I and statement II are incorrect.

    Statement I is correct and statement II is incorrect.

    Statement I is incorrect and statement II is correct.

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 3 : Statement I is correct and statement II is incorrect.

    Kyoto Protocol Question 2 Detailed Solution

    United Nations Framework Classification for Resources is an international scheme for the classification, management, and reporting of energy, mineral, and raw material resources.

    Key Points 

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established an international environmental treaty to combat "dangerous human interference with the climate system", in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

    Important PointsStatement I: The Kyoto Protocol operationalization of the United Nations framework convention on climate change.The Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets.

    The Convention itself only asks those countries to adopt policies and measures on mitigation and to report periodically.

    Hence the statement  I is correct. Statement II: it is an agreement between African countries and economies in transition.

    The Kyoto Protocol is based on the principles and provisions of the Convention and follows its annex-based structure.

    It only binds developed countries and places a heavier burden on them under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities”, because it recognizes that they are largely responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere.

    In Annex B, the Kyoto Protocol sets binding emission reduction targets for 37 industrialized countries and economies in transition and the European Union.

    Overall, these targets add up to an average 5 percent emission reduction compared to 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008–2012 (the first commitment period).

    Hence statement II is incorrect.Thus we can conclude that Statement I is correct and statement II is incorrect.

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