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    which one of the following techniques is not used for defect prevention

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    Defect Prevention Methods and Techniques

    Defect Prevention plays a major and crucial role in software development process. Here are the best defect prevention methods and techniques to follow.

    Defect Prevention Methods And Techniques

    Last Updated: August 7, 2022

    Effective Defect Prevention Approach and the Critical Views:

    Quality Assurance is the term that is commonly used to address the testing teams in IT projects.

    Technicalities aside, Quality assurance activities are not just targeted at defect identification (which is finding defects after they have happened. This simply is testing or Quality control) but also include defect prevention (making sure the defects do not happen in the first place or the defects are removed/reduced before making their way into the software product).

    A simple equation equivalent can be:

    QA= QC (defect identification) + Defect prevention

    Although this sounds fairly simple, there is less emphasis or direction available on how or what exactly are defect prevention tasks.

    The truth of the matter is, defects found during the testing phase or worse after release are costlier to find & fix and might cause a loss of trust on the brand. Hence, the earlier the prevention measures are taken, the better. Besides, defect prevention also helps companies achieve the highest CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) Level.

    In this article, let’s take a closer look at defect prevention.

    What You Will Learn:

    Defect Prevention

    Defect Prevention Methods and Techniques

    TMM Level and Defect Handling by Test Organization

    Team roles and responsibilities

    Conclusion Recommended Reading

    Defect Prevention

    Defect Prevention is a crucial step or activity in any software development process and as can be seen from the below diagram is pretty much half of our testing tasks:

    In brief, the following are the defect prevention responsibilities for testers in each of the below stages:#1) Requirement Specification Review:

    After understanding customer’s requirements prepare your requirement’s gist.

    A review is important at this step- the First level of review should be within the team, followed by another level of external review (by a dev or BA or client) to make sure that all the perspectives are in sync.

    #2) Design Review:

    Design stage can be considered a strategy stage of sorts and going through it will ensure that the QA team understands the pros and cons of each strategy.

    This kind of critical walkthrough will help unearth any problems with the said strategies and fix them before going further.This can be considered a feasibility study for the strategy (or strategies).

    #3) Code Review:

    There is not a lot for testers to directly get involved in this phase, but the review does go on here too. Developers carry out code inspections, walkthroughs and reviews before they unit and integration test the application.

    Defect Prevention Methods and Techniques

    Some traditional and common methods that have been in use since a long time for defect prevention are listed below;

    #1) Review and Inspection: This method includes the review by an individual team member (self-checking), peer reviews and inspection of all work products.=> For more information on how this is carried out, please check our Test Documentation Reviews article.#2) Walkthrough: This is more or less like a review but it’s mostly related to comparing the system to the prototype which will give a better idea regarding the correctness and/or the look-and-feel of the system.#3) Defect Logging and Documentation: This method provides some key information, arguments/parameters that can be used to support analyzing defects.#4) Root Cause Analysis: Root cause analysis includes two major approaches:I) Pareto Analysis:

    Pareto analysis is a formal and simple technique which helps prioritize the order of problem resolution for maximum impact. It states that 80% of the problem arises due to 20% reasons.

    Therefore, the problems once identified are prioritized according to frequency and a detailed statistics based analysis is performed as to find which 20% of the reasons attributed to the 80% problems. By simply focusing on those 20% reasons and eliminating those, results are guaranteed while optimizing the extent of work involved.

    II) Fishbone Analysis:

    Also known as Ishikawa Analysis this method is a more visual root cause analysis technique. There are no statistics involved as this method is based on team-wide brainstorming. The following diagram helps understand this better.

    The problem is first written on the rightmost side and on the horizontal line that passes through it, the various causes are listed. The branch that has the most cause-subclause bones (or lines/branches) is the problem that is most serious and that is to be worked towards elimination. This technique is also sometimes called cause and effect analysis.

    TMM Level and Defect Handling by Test Organization

    #1) TMM (Testing Maturity Model) is based on CMM i.e.; Capability Maturity Model.#2) Defect Prevention involves many staff members and their collaborative effort at various stages which is the reason why it plays a prominent role in TMM level 5. e.g.; If a defect occurs frequently in any test case or procedure, the organization might allocate a group of staff members to analyze the defect and develop the plan containing actions for changes in the process with the problem.

    स्रोत : www.softwaretestinghelp.com

    Defect Prevention Methods and Techniques

    A Computer Science portal for geeks. It contains well written, well thought and well explained computer science and programming articles, quizzes and practice/competitive programming/company interview Questions.

    Defect Prevention Methods and Techniques

    Difficulty Level : Basic

    Last Updated : 09 Sep, 2020

    Defect Prevention is basically defined as a measure to ensure that defects being detected so far, should not appear or occur again. For facilitating communication simply among members of team, planning and devising defect prevention guidelines, etc., Coordinator is mainly responsible.

    Coordinator is mainly responsible to lead defect prevention efforts, to facilitate meetings, to facilitate communication between team members and management, etc. DP board generally has quarterly plan in which sets some goals at organization level. To achieve these goals, various methods or activities are generally used and carried out to achieve and complete these goals.

    Methods of Defect Prevention :

    For defect prevention, there are different methods that are generally used over a long period of time. These methods or activities are given below :

    Software Requirement Analysis :

    The main cause of defects in software products is due to error in software requirements and designs. Software requirements and design both are important, and should be analyzed in an efficient way with more focus. Software requirement is basically considered an integral part of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). These are the requirements that basically describes features and functionalities of target product and also conveys expectations or requirement of users from software product.

    Therefore, it is very much needed to understand about software requirements more carefully, If requirements are not understood well by tester and developers, then there might be chance of occurring of issue or defect in further process. Therefore, it is essential to analyze and evaluate requirements in more appropriate and proper manner.

    Review and Inspection :

    Review and inspection, both are essential and integral part of software development. They are considered as powerful tools that can be used to identify and remove defects if present before there occurrence and impact on production. Review and inspection come in different levels or stages of defect prevention to meet different needs. They are used in all software development and maintenance methods. There are two types of review i.e. self-review and peer-review.

    Defect Logging and Documentation :

    After successful analysis and review, there should be records maintained about defects to simply complete description of defect. This record can be further used to have better understanding of defects. After getting knowledge and understanding of defect, then only one can take some effective and required measures and actions to resolve particular defects so that defect cannot be carried further to next phase.

    Root Cause Analysis :

    Root cause analysis is basically analysis of main cause of defect. It simply analysis what triggered defect to occur. After analyzing main cause of defect, one can find best way to simply avoid occurrence of such types of defects next time.

    स्रोत : www.geeksforgeeks.org

    Top 3 defect prevention techniques!

    Top 3 defect prevention techniques. Market trends around emerging technologies and agile methodologies are shaping software development priorities

    Top 3 defect prevention techniques

    Market trends around emerging technologies and agile methodologies are shaping software development priorities, driving demand for faster release cycles and the need for quality to be considered earlier in the application lifecycle.

    How software teams are measured for success will expand, developers will work with colleagues in cross functional roles, and the products being built will reach new limits.

    Although ensuring software quality is the primary goal for development teams, it is always surprising to see a low level of involvement toward defect prevention activities across the software development lifecycle (SDLC).

    Only 26% of executives identified increasing quality awareness among all disciplines as one of their objectives. The reality of this is that many applications are still released with known defects.

    This huge cost savings alone should be enough to convince senior leaders to examine why so few prevention activities are taking place across their projects.

    Catch defects early

    Research has shown that the cost of fixing a bug in the testing phase could be 15 times more-costly than if the defect was found during design and six times more-costly than if found during a build phase.

    Defects that are not found earlier have a larger impact the further they progress in the SDLC.

    As developers continue to build an application, the defect can impact more user scenarios, increasing complexity and adding cost, time, and effort to come to a resolution quickly.

    There are simple measures software teams can adopt to uncover bugs earlier in the lifecycle, whether teams are designing enterprise-grade desktop applications that store highly-sensitive financial data or a modern, digital-store front that processes thousands of transactions an hour.

    Prioritise UX with the right UI Dev approach

    How do we make great, best-in-class software that not only looks pretty, but can also be used by real humans? How do we hold developers accountable to think about the user?

    Behaviour- driven development (BDD), a software development process where teams create simple steps on how an application should behave from a users’ perspective, can drive entire teams to prioritise UX in their UI design.

    Adopting BDD demands a mindset shift and updated workflows that incorporate multiple stakeholders from business analysts to designers to developers to testers.

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), an alternative approach, is focused on the developers’ perspective on how software should function, which can misdirect development to prioritise functionality over user experience.

    Apple Airpods

    Take for example the dev of the AirPod. The BDD approach starts your development lifecycle with the end in mind. It outlines the steps a user will take and the impact to the user once that action occurs.

    Apple, well-known for its design thinking, has transformed how consumers listen to music from simple white headphones to its recent crowd-pleaser, AirPods.

    They did not start their development lifecycle looking to design a product that had the ability to connect sound between a phone and a user’s ear.

    Instead, they honed in on the customer’s one desire: to hear and control music away from a device. This technique unleashed design possibilities and empowered the development team to innovate, introducing one of the most popular earphones beloved for its sound quality, sleek design, and features.

    Building software with a BDD approach at the forefront brings developers closer to the ideal user experience, further preventing bugs that seem functionally correct, but that are not what the customer expected.

    With BDD support in test automation tools, development teams can accelerate an end-to-end behaviour-driven and user- focused perspective.

    With BDD in a test management platform, software teams can collaborate on building feature stories with easy-to-use editors that convert action words to user scenarios and provide step auto-suggestions.

    With BDD in test automation, teams can then accelerate BDD workflows by converting feature scenarios into automated tests instantly.

    Expose critical defects earlier

    Developing quality code that is clean, efficient, and results in zero critical defects does not have to be a pipe dream for software teams.

    I like to call this aspiration, Dev Zero, a rigorous approach to software development aimed at keeping defect count at zero (or almost zero) at all times.

    By having developers test a key user- scenario as soon as it is feasibly possible, this will compliment QA efforts to uncover high-priority, critical issues and application flaws earlier in the SDLC.

    This creates a strong application foundation that prevents critical defects from going past development and having a broader impact as code continues to be layered.

    With native integration for test automation in a development environment, developers can quickly test their code against pre-defined functional user scenarios.

    With embedded test automation functionality in an integrated development environment (IDE), developers can access their entire application source code in one location instead of inspecting a web page or a desktop component manually to include in an automated test script.

    QA can then collaborate with developers to not only ensure software quality from a ground- up, development perspective, but also a top-down, user perspective as a tester.

    स्रोत : www.devopsonline.co.uk

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