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    Who was the first Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India?

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    Who was the first Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India?


    Sir John Marshall


    Sir Alexander Cunningham


    Sir Votair


    Sir Hasting

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    स्रोत : www.toppr.com

    Archaeological Survey of India

    Archaeological Survey of India

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    "Archaeological Survey of India" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR

    Archaeological Survey of India

    Official logo of the ASI

    Abbreviation ASI

    Formation 1861; 161 years ago

    Founder Alexander Cunningham

    Type Governmental organization

    Headquarters 24 Tilak Marg, New Delhi, Delhi, India

    Region served India

    Official language English


    Director General V. Vidyavathi, IAS

    Parent organisation Ministry of Culture

    Budget ₹1,723 crore (US$220 million) (2022-23)[1]

    Website asi.nic.in

    The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is an Indian government agency that is responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural historical monuments in the country. It was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham who also became its first Director-General.


    1 History

    1.1 Formation of the ASI

    1.2 1885–1901

    1.2.1 "Buck crisis" (1888–1898)

    1.3 1901–1947 1.4 1947–2019 2 Organisation 2.1 Circles

    2.2 Directors-General

    3 Museums 4 Library 5 Publications

    6 State government archaeological departments

    7 Criticism

    8 In popular culture

    9 See also 10 References 11 External links


    ASI was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham who also became its first Director-General. The first systematic research into the subcontinent's history was conducted by the Asiatic Society, which was founded by the British Indologist William Jones on 15 January 1784. Based in Calcutta, the society promoted the study of ancient Sanskrit and Persian texts and published an annual journal titled . Notable among its early members was Charles Wilkins who published the first English translation of the in 1785 with the patronage of the then Governor-General of Bengal, Warren Hastings. However, the most important of the society's achievements was the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837. This successful decipherment inaugurated the asset.

    Formation of the ASI[edit]

    Sir Alexander Cunningham

    Armed with the knowledge of Brahmi, Alexander Cunningham, a protégé of James Prinsep, carried out a detailed survey of the Buddhist monuments which lasted for over half a century. Inspired by early amateur archaeologists like the Italian military officer, Jean-Baptiste Ventura, Cunningham excavated along the width, the length and breadth of India. While Cunningham funded many of his early excavations himself, in the long run, he realised the need for a permanent body to oversee archaeological excavations and the conservation of Indian monuments and used his stature and influence in India to lobby for an archaeological survey. While his attempt in 1848 did not meet with success, the Archaeological Survey of India was eventually formed in 1861 by a statute passed into law by Lord Canning with Cunningham as the first Archaeological Surveyor. The survey was suspended briefly between 1865 and 1871 due to lack of funds but restored by Lord Lawrence the then Viceroy of India. In 1871, the Survey was revived as a separate department and Cunningham was appointed as its first Director-General.[2]


    Cunningham retired in 1885 and was succeeded as Director General by James Burgess. Burgess launched a yearly journal (1872) and an annual epigraphical publication (1882) as a supplement to the . The post of Director General was permanently suspended in 1889 due to a funds crunch and was not restored until 1902. In the interim period, conservation work in the different circles was carried out by the superintendents of the individual circles.

    "Buck crisis" (1888–1898)[edit]

    Sir Edward Charles Buck (1838-1916), Civil servant in Bengal, India

    From 1888 started severe lobbying aimed at reducing Government expenses, and at curtailing the budget of the Archaeological Survey of India, a period of about ten years known as the "Buck crisis", after the Liberal Edward Buck.[3] In effect, this severely threatened the employment of the employees of the ASI, such as Alois Anton Führer, who had just started a family and become a father.[3]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org


    Sir Alexander Cunningham, (born Jan. 23, 1814, London, Eng.—died Nov. 28, 1893, London), British army officer and archaeologist who excavated many sites in India, including Sārnāth and Sānchi, and served as the first director of the Indian Archaeological Survey. At age 19 he joined the Bengal Engineers and spent 28 years in the British service in India, retiring as major general in 1861. Early in his career he met James Prinsep, a British numismatist and Indian scholar, who ignited his interest in Indian history and coins. In 1837 Cunningham excavated at Sārnāth, outside Vārānasi (Benares), one of the most sacred



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    Bharhut: stupa

    stupa, Buddhist commemorative monument usually housing sacred relics associated with the Buddha or other saintly persons. The hemispherical form of the stupa appears to have derived from pre-Buddhist burial mounds in India. As most characteristically seen at Sanchi in the Great Stupa (2nd–1st century BC), the monument consists of a circular base supporting a massive solid dome (the anda, “egg,” or garbha, “womb”) from which projects an umbrella. The whole of the Great Stupa is encircled by a railing and four gateways, which are richly decorated with relief sculpture depicting Jataka tales, events in the life of the Buddha, and popular mythological figures.

    The Indian conception of the stupa spread throughout the Buddhist world and evolved into such different-looking monuments as the bell-shaped dagaba (“heart of garbha”) of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), the terraced temple of Borobudur in Java, the variations in Tibet, and the multistoried pagodas of China, Korea, and Japan. The basic symbolism, in which the central relic is identified with the sacred person or concept commemorated and also with the building itself, is retained. Worship of a stupa consists in walking around the monument in the clockwise direction. Even when the stupa is sheltered by a building, it is always a freestanding monument.

    Buddhist stupas were originally built to house the earthly remains of the historical Buddha and his associates and are almost invariably found at sites sacred to Buddhism. The concept of a relic was afterward extended to include sacred texts. Miniature stupas and pagodas are also used by Buddhists throughout Asia as votive offerings. Stupas were also built by adherents of Jainism to commemorate their saints.

    This article was most recently revised and updated by Chelsey Parrott-Sheffer.

    स्रोत : www.britannica.com

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