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    Documentation Home  > System Administration Guide: IP Services  > Part I Introducing System Administration: IP Services  > Chapter 1 Oracle Solaris TCP/IP Protocol Suite (Overview)  > Introducing the TCP/IP Protocol Suite  > TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Model  > Transport Layer

    System Administration Guide: IP Services

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    Transport Layer

    The TCP/IP transport layer ensures that packets arrive in sequence and without error, by swapping acknowledgments of data reception, and retransmitting lost packets. This type of communication is known as end-to-end. Transport layer protocols at this level are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). TCP and SCTP provide reliable, end-to-end service. UDP provides unreliable datagram service.

    TCP Protocol

    TCP enables applications to communicate with each other as though they were connected by a physical circuit. TCP sends data in a form that appears to be transmitted in a character-by-character fashion, rather than as discrete packets. This transmission consists of the following:

    Starting point, which opens the connection

    Entire transmission in byte order

    Ending point, which closes the connection.

    TCP attaches a header onto the transmitted data. This header contains many parameters that help processes on the sending system connect to peer processes on the receiving system.

    TCP confirms that a packet has reached its destination by establishing an end-to-end connection between sending and receiving hosts. TCP is therefore considered a “reliable, connection-oriented” protocol.

    SCTP Protocol

    SCTP is a reliable, connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides the same services to applications that are available from TCP. Moreover, SCTP can support connections between systems that have more than one address, or multihomed. The SCTP connection between sending and receiving system is called an association. Data in the association is organized in chunks. Because SCTP supports multihoming, certain applications, particularly applications used by the telecommunications industry, need to run over SCTP, rather than TCP.

    UDP Protocol

    UDP provides datagram delivery service. UDP does not verify connections between receiving and sending hosts. Because UDP eliminates the processes of establishing and verifying connections, applications that send small amounts of data use UDP.

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    _______ provides a connection

    _______ provides a connection-oriented reliable service for sending messages. TCP IP UDP All of the above. Networking Objective type Questions and Answers.

    Discussion Forum

    Que. _______ provides a connection-oriented reliable service for sending messages.

    a. TCP b. IP c. UDP d. All of the above Answer:TCP

    David :(August 04, 2019)

    IP is a unreliable protocol because it does not guarantee the delivery of a datagram to its destination. The reliability must be provided by the upper layer protocols like TCP. IP does not support flow control, retransmission, acknowledgement and error recovery.

    Click Here to Reply

    Cablo mukhtaar :(May 04, 2020)

    Nice I like it Good Click Here to Reply

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    Transport Layer

    Transport Layer The protocol layer just above the Internet Layer is the Host-to-Host Transport Layer. This name is usually shortened to Transport Layer. The two most important protocols … - Selection from Windows NT TCP/IP Network Administration [Book]

    Transport Layer

    The protocol layer just above the Internet Layer is the Host-to-Host Transport Layer. This name is usually shortened to Transport Layer. The two most important protocols in the Transport Layer are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP provides reliable data delivery service with end-to-end error detection and correction. UDP provides low-overhead, connectionless datagram delivery service. Both protocols deliver data between the Application Layer and the Internet Layer. Applications programmers can choose whichever service is more appropriate for their specific applications.

    User Datagram Protocol

    The User Datagram Protocol gives application programs direct access to a datagram delivery service, like the delivery service that IP provides. This allows applications to exchange messages over the network with a minimum of protocol overhead.

    UDP is an unreliable, connectionless datagram protocol. As noted previously, unreliable merely means that there are no techniques in the protocol for verifying that the data reached the other end of the network correctly. Within your computer, UDP will deliver data correctly. UDP uses 16-bit Source Port and Destination Port numbers in word 1 of the message header, to deliver data to the correct applications process. Figure 1-8 shows the UDP message format.

    Figure 1-8. UDP message format

    Why do applications programmers choose UDP as a data transport service? There are a number of good reasons. If the amount of data being transmitted is small, the overhead of creating connections and ensuring reliable delivery may be greater than the work of re-transmitting the entire data set. In this case, UDP is the most efficient choice for a Transport Layer protocol. Applications that fit a query-response model are also excellent candidates for using UDP. The response can be used as a positive acknowledgment to the query. If a response isn’t received within a certain time period, the application just sends another query. Still other applications provide their own techniques for reliable data delivery, and don’t require that service from the transport layer protocol. Imposing another layer of acknowledgment on any of these types of applications is inefficient.

    Many important Windows NT services rely on UDP. A prime example is the Microsoft DHCP Server. The client queries the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server for configuration information. The server responds with the requested information. This vital query/response protocol runs efficiently over UDP.

    Transmission Control Protocol

    Applications that require the transport protocol to provide reliable data delivery use TCP because it verifies that data is delivered across the network accurately and in the proper sequence. TCP is a reliable, connection-oriented, byte-stream protocol. Let’s look at each of the terms—reliable, connection-oriented, and byte-stream—in more detail.

    TCP provides reliability with a mechanism called Positive Acknowledgment with Re-transmission (PAR). Simply stated, a system using PAR sends the data again, unless it hears from the remote system that the data arrived successfully. The unit of data exchanged between cooperating TCP modules is called a segment (see Figure 1-9). Each segment contains a checksum that the recipient uses to verify that the data is undamaged. If the data segment is received undamaged, the receiver sends a positive acknowledgment back to the sender. If the data segment is damaged, the receiver discards it. After an appropriate time-out period, the sending TCP module re-transmits any segment for which no positive acknowledgment has been received.

    Figure 1-9. TCP segment format

    TCP is connection-oriented. It establishes a logical end-to-end connection between the two communicating hosts. Control information, called a handshake, is exchanged between the two endpoints to establish a dialogue before data is transmitted. TCP indicates the control function of a segment by setting the appropriate bit in the Flags field in word 4 of the segment header.

    The type of handshake used by TCP is called a three-way handshake because three segments are exchanged. Figure 1-10 show the simplest form of the three-way handshake. Host A begins the connection by sending host B a segment with the Synchronize sequence numbers (SYN) bit set. This segment tells host B that A wishes to set up a connection, and it tells B what sequence number host A will use as a starting number for its segments. (Sequence numbers are used to keep data in the proper order.) Host B responds to A with a segment that has the Acknowledgment (ACK) and SYN bits set. B’s segment acknowledges the receipt of A’s segment, and informs A which Sequence Number host B will start with. Finally, host A sends a segment that acknowledges receipt of B’s segment, and transfers the first actual data.

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