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    Sacraments of the Catholic Church

    Sacraments of the Catholic Church

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    This article is about the Catholic rites. For other uses, see Sacrament (disambiguation).

    by Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1448

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    There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church. Sacraments are visible rites seen as signs and efficacious channels of the grace of God to all those who receive them with the proper disposition.

    The sacraments are often classified into three categories: the sacraments of initiation (into the Church, the body of Christ), consisting of Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist; the sacraments of healing, consisting of the Sacrament of Penance and the Anointing of the Sick; and the sacraments of service: Holy Orders and Matrimony.[1]

    Contents

    1 Enumeration 1.1 History 1.2 Current 2 Dogmatic aspects 3 Faith and grace

    4 Sacraments of initiation

    4.1 Baptism 4.2 Confirmation 4.3 Eucharist

    4.4 Restored order of initiation

    5 Sacraments of healing

    5.1 Penance

    5.2 Anointing of the Sick

    6 Sacraments of service

    6.1 Holy Orders 6.2 Matrimony

    7 Validity and liceity

    7.1 Impediments

    7.2 Conditional conferral

    8 Seven Sacraments fonts

    9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

    Enumeration[edit]

    The seven sacraments of the Catholic Church

    History[edit]

    The number of the sacraments in the early church was variable and undefined; Peter Damian for example had listed eleven, including the ordination of kings.[2] Hugh of Saint Victor enumerated nearly thirty, although he put Baptism and Holy Communion first with special relevance.[3] The current seven sacraments were set out in the Sentences by Peter Lombard, and these seven were confirmed by the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1213.[2]

    Current[edit]

    The lists the sacraments as follows: "The whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments. There are seven sacraments in the Church: Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony."[4]

    The list of seven sacraments already given by the Council of Florence (1439)[5] was reaffirmed by the Council of Trent (1545–1563),[6] which stated:

    CANON I.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ, our Lord; or that they are more, or less, than seven, to wit, Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, and Matrimony; or even that any one of these seven is not truly and properly a sacrament; let him be anathema.

    CANON IV.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous; and that, without them, or without the desire thereof, men obtain of God, through faith alone, the grace of justification; – though all (the sacraments) are not necessary for every individual; let him be anathema.[7]

    Dogmatic aspects[edit]

    "Sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit of the word of God, committed to the Church."[8] "In the liturgy, above all that of the sacraments, there is an part, a part that is divinely instituted and of which the Church is the guardian, and parts that , which the Church has the power and on occasion also the duty to adapt to the cultures of recently evangelized peoples."[9] Baptism cannot be changed to allow a non-Trinitarian formula.[10] "Anyone conscious of a grave sin must receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before coming to communion."[11] Regarding marriage, "basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that 'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered' [...] contrary to the natural law."[12] "The ordination of women is not possible."[13]

    The efficacy of sacraments does not depend on the celebrant's being in the state of grace. Their power comes not from the celebrant nor from the recipient but from God. In them Christ himself is at work. However, the actual effects ("the fruits") of the sacrament depends also on the recipient's disposition:[14] "in order that the liturgy may be able to produce its full effects, it is necessary that the faithful come to it with proper dispositions, that their minds should be attuned to their voices, and that they should cooperate with divine grace lest they receive it in vain".[15]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Which Sacraments Can Only Be Done by a Priest?

    “Which sacraments can only be done by a priest?” a listener asks. Father Dave explains “who can do what” when it comes to the seven sacraments.

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    Which Sacraments Can Only Be Done by a Priest?

    In this segment from the Busted Halo Show, a listener named Wendy asks a question about the sacraments. “Which sacraments can only be done by a priest?” she asks. “By a deacon?” Father Dave explains “who can do what” when it comes to the seven sacraments.

    WATCH: Sacraments 101 and 201 Videos

    In terms of sacramental authority, only a bishop can perform all seven sacraments: Baptism, Eucharist, Confirmation, Reconciliation, Holy Orders, Marriage, and the Anointing of the Sick. Because of their position of authority, only bishops can preside over the Sacrament of Holy Orders or the ordination of priests. Likewise, Confirmation can only be performed by a bishop, with some exceptions. For example, if a bishop appoints a suitable representative, then another priest may preside in place of the bishop. Additionally, many priests are allowed to confirm their own parishioners during the Easter Vigil.

    All priests, including bishops, can perform the Sacraments of Holy Communion, Reconciliation, and the Anointing of the Sick. All bishops, priests, and deacons can perform the Sacrament of Marriage.

    RELATED: What Does the Bible Say About the Seven Sacraments?

    Finally, the Sacrament of Baptism is normally performed by a bishop, priest, or deacon. However, special circumstances may permit a layperson to perform a baptism. If, for example, the one who will be baptized is in danger of death and there’s no priest or deacon present, any Christian layperson may baptize them.

    स्रोत : bustedhalo.com

    The Seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church

    This Encyclopedia Britannica Philosophy and Religion list describes the seven sacraments of Roman Catholicism.

    The Seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic church

    By Melissa Petruzzello

    The curation of this content is at the discretion of the author, and not necessarily reflective of the views of Encyclopaedia Britannica or its editorial staff. For the most accurate and up-to-date information, consult individual encyclopedia entries about the topics.

    © fragolerosse/Fotolia

    The Roman Catholic Church has seven holy sacraments that are seen as mystical channels of divine grace, instituted by Christ. Each is celebrated with a visible rite, which reflects the invisible, spiritual essence of the sacrament. Whereas some sacraments are received only once, others require active and ongoing participation to foster the "living faith" of the celebrant.

    Baptism

    baptism of Jesus

    © Photos.com/Thinkstock

    Baptism is seen as the sacrament of admission to the faith, bringing sanctifying grace to the person being baptized. In Catholicism the baptism of infants is the most common form, but unbaptized children or adults who wish to join the faith must also receive the sacrament. A person is to be baptized only once in their life, and the Catholic Church recognizes baptisms done by most other Christian denominations as valid. In the rite of baptism holy water is usually sprinkled or poured on the head by a priest who simultaneously invokes the Trinity with the words, "I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." The old self is said to die in the waters, and a new self emerges, mirroring the death and resurrection of Christ. Given that the sacrament is understood as a requirement for salvation, anyone, even non-baptized persons, can baptize someone as the situation requires.

    Eucharist

    Clements, George

    John H. White/EPA/National Archives, Washington, D.C.

    The Eucharist, or Holy Communion, is another sacrament of initiation and can be received daily if desired. It is the central rite of Catholic worship. A baptized child's First Communion is usually celebrated around age seven or eight and is preceded by their first confession (the sacrament of Reconciliation). During the mass the priest consecrates bread and wine, the elements of the Eucharist, which are transubstantiated into the body and blood of Christ. As a memorial of Christ’s sacrifice on the cross and in a reflection of his Last Supper with his disciples, the congregation then shares in the sacred meal. Special lay ministers (i.e., non-priests) are trained to bring the consecrated elements to the ill or otherwise homebound so that all Catholics can participate.

    Confirmation

    Confirmation is the third sacrament of initiation and serves to "confirm" a baptized person in their faith. The rite of confirmation can occur as early as age 7 for children who were baptized as infants but is commonly received around age 13; it is performed immediately after baptism for adult converts. A bishop or priest normally performs the rite, which includes the laying on of hands in prayer and blessing and the anointing of the forehead with chrism (holy oil) with the words, ”Be sealed with the gifts of the Holy Spirit.” In so "sealing" that person as a member of the church, the outward rite of confirmation signifies the inner presence of the Holy Spirit, who is believed to provide the strength to live out a life of faith. At confirmation a Catholic may symbolically take the name of a saint to be his or her patron.

    Reconciliation

    The Confessional

    SCALA/Art Resource, New York

    Also known as Confession or Penance, the sacrament of Reconciliation is seen as an opportunity for renewal and can be done as often as needed. Some Catholics participate weekly before receiving the Eucharist, whereas others may seek the sacrament only during the penitential seasons of Lent or Advent. Reconciliation is a means of obtaining pardon from God for sins for which the sinner is truly remorseful, and brings the sinner back into communion with God and the Church. The sacrament is an opportunity for self-reflection and requires that the person take full responsibility for his or her sins, both those in thought and in action. During the rite, sins are recounted privately to a priest, who is seen as a healer aiding the process, and the priest commonly assigns acts of penance, such as specific prayers or acts of restitution, to complete in the following days. A prayer of contrition is offered at the end of the confession, and the newly absolved Catholic is urged to refrain from repeating those sins.

    Anointing of the Sick

    Anointing of the Sick, formerly known as Extreme Unction, is a sacrament that is administered to give strength and comfort to the ill and to mystically unite their suffering with that of Christ during his Passion and death. This sacrament can be given to those who are afflicted with serious illness or injury, those who are awaiting surgery, the weakened elderly, or to ill children who are old enough to understand its significance. A person can receive the sacrament as many times as needed throughout their life, and a person with a chronic illness might be anointed again if the disease worsens. The rite can be performed in a home or hospital by a priest, who prays over the person and anoints their head and hands with chrism (holy oil). The priest may also administer the sacrament of the Eucharist if the person has been unable to receive it and can hear a confession if so desired. If a person is at the point of death, the priest also administers a special Apostolic blessing in what is known as the Last Rites.

    स्रोत : www.britannica.com

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