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    Languages Included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

    the Department of Official Language was set up in June 1975 as an independent Department of the Ministry of Home Affairs.

    Languages Included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

    Languages Included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution Languages Included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

    Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Malayalam Manipuri Marathi Maithili Nepali Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Santhali Sindhi Tamil Telugu Urdu

    स्रोत : rajbhasha.gov.in

    Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India

    Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India

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    Constitution of India

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    Constitutionally recognised languages of India

    Category

    22 Official Languages of the Indian Republic

    Assamese  · Bengali  · Bodo  · Dogri  · Gujarati

    Hindi  · Kannada  · Kashmiri  · Konkani  · Maithili

    Malayalam  · Marathi  · Meitei (Manipuri)  · Nepali

    Odia  · Punjabi  · Sanskrit  · Santali  · Sindhi

    Tamil  · Telugu  · Urdu

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    Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India

    Official Languages Commission

    Classical Languages of India

    List of languages by number of native speakers in India

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    The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists the official languages of the Republic of India. At the time when the Constitution was enacted, inclusion in this list meant that the language was entitled to representation on the Official Languages Commission,[1] and that the language would be one of the bases that would be drawn upon to enrich Hindi and English, the official languages of the Union.[2] The list has since, however, acquired further significance. The Government of India is now under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, such that "they grow rapidly in richness and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge."[3] In addition, candidates sitting for an examination conducted for public service are entitled to use any of these languages as a medium to answer the paper.[4]

    Schedule languages[edit]

    As per Articles 344(1) and 351 of the Indian Constitution, the eighth schedule includes the recognition of the following 22 languages:[5][6]

    Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi[note 1] Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Manipuri Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Santhali Sindhi Tamil Telugu Urdu[note 1]

    Chronology[edit]

    1950: 14 were initially included in the Constitution.

    1967: Sindhi was added by 21st Constitutional Amendment Act

    1992: Konkani, Manipuri (Meitei) and Nepali were added by 71st Constitutional Amendment Act

    2003: Bodo, Dogri, Maithili and Santali were added by 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act.[7]

    2011: The spelling Oriya was replaced by Odia by 96th Constitutional Amendment Act.

    Demands for expansion[edit]

    At present, as per the Ministry of Home Affairs,[8][9] there are demands for inclusion of 39 more languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. These are:

    Angika Awadhi Banjara Bajjika Bhojpuri Bhoti Bhotia Bundelkhandi Chhattisgarhi Dhatki English Garhwali Gondi Gujjari Ho Kachhi Kamtapuri Karbi Khasi Kodava Kokborok Kumaoni Kurukh Kurmali Lepcha Limbu Mizo Magahi Mundari Nagpuri Nicobarese Pahari Pali Rajasthani Sambalpuri Shauraseni Prakrit Saraiki Tenyidi Tulu

    Notes[edit]

    ^ Jump up to:

    Although linguistically Hindi and Urdu together is classified as a single language called Hindustani, the government classifies them as separate languages instead of different standard registers of the same language due to socio-political reasons.

    References[edit]

    ^ Constitution of India, Article 344(1).^ Constitution of India, Article 351.^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 2. Archived March 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 4. Archived March 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine^ Josh, Jagran (4 January 2019). . Jagran Josh. pp. 97–. The Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution lists 22 official languages of the Republic of India. The languages include Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu.^ Arihant Experts (5 March 2022). . Arihant Publications India limited. pp. 320–. ISBN 9789326191210. 49 (b) The Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution lists 22 official languages of the Republic of India. Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official languages in Articles 343 to 351. The 22 official languages are: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santali, Maithili, and Dogri.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

    Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

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    Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

    04 Aug 2021 4 min read Tags: GS Paper - 2 Indian Constitution Diversity of India

    Why in News

    Recently, the Union Minister of Education has informed in the Lok Sabha about the various steps taken by the government to promote the Languages in Eighth Schedule.

    Key Points

    Eighth Schedule:About:

    It lists the official languages of the republic of India. Part XVII of the Indian constitution deals with the official languages in Articles 343 to 351.

    The Constitutional provisions related to the Eighth Schedule are:

    Article 344: Article 344(1) provides for the constitution of a Commission by the President on expiration of five years from the commencement of the Constitution.Article 351: It provides for the spread of the Hindi language to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India.

    However, It can be noted that there is no fixed criteria for any language to be considered for inclusion in the Eighth Schedule.

    Official Languages:

    The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution consists of the following 22 languages:

    Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi,Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili and Dogri.

    Of these languages, 14 were initially included in the Constitution.

    Sindhi language was added by the 21st Amendment Act of 1967.

    Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali were included by the 71st Amendment Act of 1992.

    Bodo, Dogri, Maithili, and Santhali were added by the 92nd Amendment Act of 2003 which came into force in 2004.

    Classical Languages:About:

    Currently there are six languages that enjoy the ‘Classical’ status in India:

    Tamil (declared in 2004), Sanskrit (2005), Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013), and Odia (2014).

    All the Classical Languages are listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.

    Guidelines:

    The Ministry of Culture provides the guidelines regarding Classical languages which are as given below:

    High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years;

    A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers.

    The literary tradition is original and not borrowed from another speech community.

    The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.

    Benefits for Promotion: Once a language is notified as a Classical language, the Human Resource and Development Ministry provides certain benefits to promote it:Two major annual international awards for scholars of eminence in classical Indian languages.

    A Centre of Excellence for studies in Classical Languages is set up.

    The University Grants Commission is requested to create, to start with at least in the Central Universities, a certain number of Professional Chairs for the Classical Languages so declared.

    Source: PIB

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