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    which substance causes muscle cramps during strenuous workout or any other hardcore training?


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    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) are a common condition experienced by recreational and competitive athletes. Despite their commonality and prevalence, their cause remains unknown. Theories for the cause of EAMC are primarily based on anecdotal ...

    Sports Health. 2010 Jul; 2(4): 279–283.

    doi: 10.1177/1941738109357299

    PMCID: PMC3445088 PMID: 23015948

    Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps

    Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

    Kevin C. Miller, PhD, ATC, CSCS,*† Marcus S. Stone, PhD, ATC,‡ Kellie C. Huxel, PhD, ATC,§ and Jeffrey E. Edwards, PhD‖

    Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer

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    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) are a common condition experienced by recreational and competitive athletes. Despite their commonality and prevalence, their cause remains unknown. Theories for the cause of EAMC are primarily based on anecdotal and observational studies rather than sound experimental evidence. Without a clear cause, treatments and prevention strategies for EAMC are often unsuccessful.

    Evidence Acquisition:

    A search of Medline (EBSCO), SPORTDiscus, and Silverplatter (CINHAL) was undertaken for journal articles written in English between the years 1955 and 2008. Additional references were collected by a careful analysis of the citations of others’ research and textbooks.


    Dehydration/electrolyte and neuromuscular causes are the most widely discussed theories for the cause of EAMC; however, strong experimental evidence for either theory is lacking.


    EAMC are likely due to several factors coalescing to cause EAMC. The variety of treatments and prevention strategies for EAMC are evidence of the uncertainty in their cause. Acute EAMC treatment should focus on moderate static stretching of the affected muscle followed by a proper medical history to determine any predisposing conditions that may have triggered the onset of EAMC. Based on physical findings, prevention programs should be implemented to include fluid and electrolyte balance strategies and/or neuromuscular training.

    Keywords: cramping, dehydration, electrolytes, fatigue, stretching

    Skeletal muscle cramps that occur during or shortly following exercise in healthy individuals with no underlying metabolic, neurological, or endocrine pathology have been termed exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC).51 Though controversial, an important differentiation in determining the cause of EAMC may be the number and location of muscles affected. EAMC typically occur in single, multijoint muscles (eg, triceps surae, quadriceps, hamstrings) when contracting in a shortened state,51 whereas generalized EAMC occur in multiple, usually bilateral muscles. Clinically, EAMC may be recognized by acute pain, stiffness, visible bulging or knotting of the muscle, and possible soreness that can last for several days.37,40 Although EAMC can be isolated, athletes often complain of EAMC symptoms up to 8 hours after exercise.18 This postexercise period of increased susceptibility to EAMC has been termed the cramp prone state.50 Although some EAMC do not appear to affect athletic performance,38,52 other times, EAMC can be completely debilitating.11,41

    The clinical presentation of EAMC is easily recognized, but its cause continues to be unresolved. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms causing EAMC may allow better prevention and treatments, thus reducing the incidence rate. Norris et al43 reported that 95% of physical education students (115 of 121) had experienced spontaneous cramps in their lifetimes with 26% (31 of 121) experiencing cramps after exercise. Kantarowski et al32 reported that 67% of triathletes (1631 of 2438) complained of EAMC under a variety of training conditions. More recently, a subset of American football players who experienced exertional heat illness reported concomitant skeletal muscle cramping.16 Thus, EAMC are common in both the recreational and the competitive athlete.

    Although EAMC are common in athletes, the cause is unknown and controversial.8,50,51 Traditionally thought to be caused by factors associated with exercise in hot and humid environments (eg, dehydration and/or electrolyte imbalances),8 evidence suggests a neuromuscular cause.51 The inference from several studies is that EAMC have a singular, unknown cause.3,35,50,51 Authors have also suggested that there may be different kinds of EAMC and thus different causes (eg, isolated and generalized).8 Without a clear cause, the treatments and prevention strategies for EAMC vary considerably and have limited perceived effectiveness by health professionals.56 One approach to determining cause and the effectiveness of treatments is to examine the published studies and determine their level of evidence.

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    Theories for the Cause of EAMC

    The dehydration–electrolyte imbalance theory is the most common among health care professionals.56 Proponents state that because the body does not store enough water for exercise46 and athletes do not ingest enough water to replace the amounts they lose during exercise,23 EAMC are the result of fluid and electrolyte depletion, which results in the sensitization of select nerve terminals.34 The resulting contracture of the interstitial space increases the mechanical pressure on select motor nerve endings and finally results in EAMC.8,34 Exercise in hot and humid conditions exacerbates the amount of fluid and electrolytes lost, thereby facilitating cramps.

    Support for the dehydration–electrolyte imbalance theory comes mainly from research classified as level 4 and 5 evidence. Miners develop cramps because of their sweat losses while working in hot and humid conditions.41,60 More recently, researchers observed that the majority of cramping (95%, 87 of 92) occurred in hot months—specifically, when football players exercised in environmental conditions in which the risk of developing heat illness was “high” or “extreme.”16 Other evidence for this theory comes from case studies and other observational work in which large sweat losses occurred in exercising athletes.6,7,54 Some health professionals postulate that sweat glands are unable to reabsorb sodium at “high” sweat rates.20 The prevailing belief is that EAMC are a warning sign of dehydration–electrolyte imbalance.21

    स्रोत : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Why vigorous exercise sometimes results in muscular class 10 biology CBSE

    Why vigorous exercise sometimes results in muscular pain

    Why vigorous exercise sometimes results in muscular pain?

    Answer Verified 204.9k+ views

    Hint: Muscles are soft tissues which are found in most animals. When there is lack of oxygen, the muscle cells respire anaerobically, to produce lactic acid.Complete Answer:

    - During strenuous exercise, our muscle cells run short of oxygen, as a result they breakdown the glucose to lactic acid anaerobically. When lactic acid builds up, gradually, it leads to muscle cramps and muscle fatigue.

    - So during this heavy workout, we tend to breathe faster in an attempt to gain more and more oxygen, even though it does not fulfill the oxygen needs of our muscle cells. This is because our human body always prefers aerobic respiration over anaerobic.

    - In the process of glycolysis, glucose is converted to pyruvate through multiple series of steps, and it is again broken down for more energy. But when the cells are short of oxygen, the body temporarily converts pyruvate into lactic acid and energy. This process takes place just to break down glucose and produce energy, so that the process can continue as it is. Hence, there is accumulation of extreme levels of lactic acid.

    - This increase of lactate leads to disturbances in muscle cells' metabolism, due to increase in acidity of the muscle cells.

    - So once the body starts to slow down, oxygen level again rises, and slowly lactic acid gets converted to pyruvic acid, reverting the whole process back to normal.

    Note: Muscle soreness after heavy workout is referred to as delayed-onset muscle soreness, or DOMS. To decrease muscle pain after exercises, there are certain safety tips as follows;

    - Drink lots and lots of water to keep hydrated, after and before exercising.

    - A balanced healthy diet.

    - A sound sleep.

    - Warming up before a heavy workout.

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    (PDF) Muscle Cramping During Exercise: Causes, Solutions, and Questions Remaining

    PDF | Muscle cramp is a temporary but intense and painful involuntary contraction of skeletal muscle that can occur in many different situations. The... | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate

    ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

    Muscle Cramping During Exercise: Causes, Solutions, and Questions Remaining

    December 2019Sports Medicine 49(2 Suppl)


    LicenseCC BY 4.0 Authors: Ronald J Maughan Susan M Shirreffs

    Abstract and Figures

    Muscle cramp is a temporary but intense and painful involuntary contraction of skeletal muscle that can occur in many different situations. The causes of, and cures for, the cramps that occur during or soon after exercise remain uncertain, although there is evidence that some cases may be associated with disturbances of water and salt balance, while others appear to involve sustained abnormal spinal reflex activity secondary to fatigue of the affected muscles. Evidence in favour of a role for dyshydration comes largely from medical records obtained in large industrial settings, although it is supported by one large-scale intervention trial and by field trials involving small numbers of athletes. Cramp is notoriously unpredictable, making laboratory studies difficult, but experimental models involving electrical stimulation or intense voluntary contractions of small muscles held in a shortened position can induce cramp in many, although not all, individuals. These studies show that dehydration has no effect on the stimulation frequency required to initiate cramping and confirm a role for spinal pathways, but their relevance to the spontaneous cramps that occur during exercise is questionable. There is a long history of folk remedies for treatment or prevention of cramps; some may reduce the likelihood of some forms of cramping and reduce its intensity and duration, but none are consistently effective. It seems likely that there are different types of cramp that are initiated by different mechanisms; if this is the case, the search for a single strategy for prevention or treatment is unlikely to succeed.

    Postulated abnormal spinal control of motor neuron function during exercise-associated muscle cramp. Based on a proposal by Schwellnus et al. [1]. CNS central nervous system

    Figures - available from: Sports Medicine

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    स्रोत : www.researchgate.net

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