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    For other uses, see Khamr (disambiguation).

    This article uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources, with multiple points of view.


    Khamr (Arabic: خمر) is an Arabic word for wine; intoxication; the plural form, Khumūr (Arabic: خمور), is defined as alcoholic beverages, wine; liquor.[1] In fiqh, it refers to certain forbidden substances, and its technical definition depends on the madhhab or legal school. Most jurists, including those from the Maliki, Shafiʽi, Hanbali, Ahl-i Hadith legal schools have traditionally viewed it as general term for any intoxicating beverage made from grapes, dates, and similar substances.[2] Hanafi jurists restricted the term to a narrower range of beverages.[2] Over time, some jurists classified other intoxicants, such as opium and khat, as , based on a hadith stating, "The Holy Prophet said: 'every intoxicant is khamr, and every intoxicant is forbidden.'"[2][3]

    Traditions of Muhammad indicated that khamr may be made from two plants, the grapevine and the date palm.[4]

    There are some faqīhs, particularly of the Hanafi school, who take the concept of khamr literally and forbid only grape-based (or date-based) alcoholic beverages, allowing those made with other fruits, grains, or honey. This is, however, a minority opinion.[5][6]

    Islamic countries have low rates of alcohol consumption. However, a minority of Muslims do drink despite religious prohibitions.[7] Muslim-majority countries produce a variety of regional distilled beverages such as arrack and rakı. There is a long tradition of viticulture in the Middle East, particularly in Egypt (where it is legal) and in Iran (where it is banned).


    1 Scriptural basis 1.1 Punishment 2 Interpretation

    2.1 All alcohol or only wine debate

    2.2 Of punishment 3 See also 4 References 4.1 Notes 4.2 Citations

    Scriptural basis[edit]

    Quranic verses that at least discourage alcohol include

    They ask you about wine (khamr) and gambling. Say, "In them is great sin and [yet, some] benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit."

    — Qur'an 2:219, [8]

    "O you who acknowledge, Do not go near prayer, (Salat) while you are stupified (under influence), until you know what you are saying"

    — Qur'an 4:43, [9]

    O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants (khamr), gambling, [sacrificing on] stone altars [to other than God], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.

    — Qur'an 5:90, [10]

    According to a hadith where Imam Ahmad recorded what Abu Maysarah said, the verses came after requests by `Umar to Allah, to "Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr!".[11] Many Muslims believe the verses were revealed over time in this order to gradually nudge Muslim converts away from drunkenness and towards total sobriety, as to ban alcohol abruptly would have been too harsh and impractical.[]


    The Quran does not prescribe a penalty for consuming alcohol. Among hadith, the only reference for punishment comes from one by Anas ibn Malik, (according to Murtaza Haider of Dawn.com in Pakistan) who is reported to have stated that Muhammad prescribed 40 lashes "administered with two palm branches ... for someone accused of consuming alcohol".[12] Saudi Arabian scholar Saalih al-Munajjid also states that a hadith report narrated by Sahih Muslim (3281) from Anas reports that Muhammad flogged someone who had drunk wine with palm branches stripped of their leaves and with shoes.[13]


    All alcohol or only wine debate[edit]

    Like the rationalist school of Islamic theology, the Muʿtazila,[14] early Hanafi scholars upheld the unlawfulness of intoxication, but restricted its definition to fermented juice of grapes[15] or grapes and dates.[16] As a result, alcohol derived by means of honey, barley, wheat and millet such as whisky, beer and vodka was permitted according to Abu Hanifa and Abu Yusuf, although all forms of grape alcohol were banned absolutely.[17] This was in stark contrast to other schools of fiqh, which prohibit consumption of alcohol in all its forms, though Hanafis traced their view on intoxicants back to Umar (644) and Abdullah ibn Masud (.653),[18][]

    Averroes, the Muslim Andalusi[19] polymath and jurist, explained it thus in his encyclopedia of comparative Islamic jurisprudence,

    In their argument by way of reasoning they said that the Koran has explicitly laid down that the Illa (underlying cause) of prohibition of khamr is that it prevents the remembrance of God and breeds enmity and hatred…[this is] found only in a certain quantity of the intoxicating liquor not in what is less than that; it follows therefore that only this quantity be prohibited.[20]

    This distinction between the legal status of wine and non-grape alcoholic beverages was reflected in early Hanafi legal doctrine. Hanafi jurists delineated drinking-related offences into two categories:

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    What the Quran Says About Alcohol

    Alcohol, a common scientific name correlated to its products, wine, has always been a confabulation in the Islamic community. The Quran discusses wine or alcoholic/intoxicating products using the word khamr […]

    What the Quran Says About Alcohol

    by Quranic | Sep 26, 2022 | General | 1 comment

    Alcohol, a common scientific name correlated to its products, wine, has always been a confabulation in the Islamic community. The Quran discusses wine or alcoholic/intoxicating products using the word khamr (خمر). According to hadith, khamr is what covers “intellect” and is made from five things: grapes, dates, wheat, barley and honey (Bukhari and Muslim). Covering the intellect means entering the state of unconsciousness; when someone drinks alcohol, it dulls the parts of the brain, thus affecting the ability to make decisions and remain conscious.


    The Three-Step Prohibition

    Fourteen hundred years ago, Allah SWT revealed the truth about khamr/alcohol usage in the Quran. Ayahs prohibiting alcohol were revealed in the third year after Hijrah after Battle Uhud. The alcohol prohibition analogies are mentioned three times in three different chapters of Quran; a three-step prohibition which made it easier for those addicted to alcohol to stop it gradually.

    (1) At first, an answered prohibition against queries of the Prophet’s (pbuh) companions was revealed.

    (2) Next, a general warning was given to forbid Muslims from attending prayers while in a drunken state.

    (3) Afterwards, a revelation through the Quran made it specifically clear that alcohol has some benefits but its negative effects outweigh the good.

    Moreover, the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) further clarified this to his companions to avoid any intoxicating substance that could be harmful at societal or individual level. On the other hand, there are contrasting opinions by fiqh scholars regarding alcohol usage, as to whether its drinking is only forbidden or any of its form (i.e. medicinal, cosmetics and perfumes.) This article will discuss the Quran verses and their explanation by hadiths and fiqh scholars regarding the use of alcohol/wine/khamr.

    Prohibition of Intoxicants

    They ask you ˹O Prophet˺ about intoxicants and gambling. Say, “There is great evil in both, as well as some benefit for people—but the evil outweighs the benefit.” (Quran, Al-Baqarah, 2:219).

    Once ‘Umar al-Khattab, Muaz bin Jabul, and a few other companions approached the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) and spoke to him about khamr (wine) and maysir (gambling – game of chances). They said that these two addictions not only detract people from man’s goals but also create financial loss. This verse was revealed as an answer to their query. After the revelation of this ayah, some companions took it very seriously and stopped drinking immediately whilst others continued since the ayah does not clearly indicate the wine as haram activity (Tafsir ibn Kathir).

    In this ayah drinking has not been clearly specified as an unlawful or haram activity, but its faults have been highlighted, which may lead man into numerous wicked acts that are sinful. The Quran plainly states in this ayah that alcohol or wine (khamr) consumption is a major sin – اِثْمٌ كَبِیْرٌ – and according to Quran and sunnah, major sins are explicitly prohibited. Moreover, it should be noted here that the term ithm – إِثْمٌ involves anything that might lead to enact a sin (Shafi). Alcohol, for example, diminishes the senses and reduces the ability of reason. Human reason serves as a check on human indulgence in wicked activities. When reason is hindered, the door is open for all kinds of sins. (Learn what the Quran says about temptation here.)

    Prohibition of Alcohol For Attending Prayers

    O believers! Do not approach prayer while intoxicated until you are aware of what you say, nor in a state of ˹full˺ impurity. (Quran, An-Nisa, 4:43)

    One day some of the Prophet’s companions were invited to a dinner by Abdul Rehman bin Awf to his home. When dinner was done, they started drinking wine as usual. Meanwhile, maghrib salah time came. Everyone stood up and chose an imam from amongst them for the prayer. The imam began reciting the Qur’an, but due to his drunkenness, he read the Surah incorrectly (Tafsir ibn Kathir). (Learn to improve your recitation here and the meaning of what you recite here.)

    This Quranic verse was revealed following the incident that happened at the house of Abdul Rehman bin Awf. It was the second step against drinking alcohol and then alcohol was declared specifically unlawful for performing prayers. Some companions stopped drinking alcohol after concluding that if something stops them from performing prayers then it would not be a good thing for them to adopt. But after this ayah, many companions also still continued drinking wine/alcohol.

    Complete Prohibition of Alcohol

    O believers! Intoxicants, gambling, idols, and drawing lots for decisions are all evil of Satan’s handiwork. So shun them so you may be successful. (Quran, Al-Maidah, 5:90)

    Satan’s plan is to stir up hostility and hatred between you with intoxicants and gambling and to prevent you from remembering Allah and praying. Will you not then abstain? (Quran, 5:91)

    Imam Ahmad bin Hambal narrated Abu Maysarah said that ‘Umar radhiAllahu ‘anhu once said, “O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding al-khamr (wine)!” Later, the above third and fourth ayah was revealed and included the complete prohibition of any intoxicating substance (including khamr or wine). When the last portion (Will you not then abstain?) of the ayah was recited to him, he replied, “We did abstain, we did abstain.” (Al-Qurtubi).

    स्रोत : www.getquranic.com

    Alcohol in the Quran: What Does the Quran Say About Alcohol

    Alcohol in the Quran has been talked about in several verses. Drinking alcohol is prohibited in Islam. Click to learn more.

    Abu Mahdi December 9, 2020 7:30 am 5 Comments

    Alcohol in the Quran

    Table of Contents

    Alcohol is a topic that has been touch upon in the Quran in several verses. Alcohol may include any beverage that has a certain percentage of alcohol in it and is an intoxicant including wine, beer, liquor, and so on. The consumption of alcohol and intoxicants is prohibited in the Quran.

    In this article, we will discuss the topic of alcohol in the Quran. The following topics will be discussed:

    References to Alcohol in the Quran

    The Quran talks about the ruling concerning alcohol and intoxicating drinks by using the Arabic word khamr­ (خَمر), which literally means concealment. The reason intoxicating drinks have been given this name is that they put a veil or conceal the mind such that it does not function properly. At the time of the Prophet, alcoholic drinks mostly included fermented drinks made from certain fruits like grapes (wine) and dates as well as grains such as malt (beer).

    All of these fermented drinks have certain percentages of alcohol in them. Nowadays, there are a wider variety of alcoholic drinks that all fall under the category of khamr, because they also conceal the mind and cause intoxication. Therefore, the word khamr, which the Quran uses, means any intoxicating drink that has alcohol or any other intoxicating agent in it. If you want to know more about which beverages are unlawful to drink in Islam, please enroll in our course on “Halal Food.”

    Verses of Alcohol in the Quran

    Let us go over the verses of the Quran that speak about alcohol:

    يَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْخَمْرِ وَٱلْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَـٰفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا ﴿219﴾

    They ask you about wine and gambling. Tell them, there are great sins in them, [even though they bring] some profit to the people, but their sin is greater than their profit.1

    It is interesting that wine and gambling have been asked about together. This shows that these two misbehaviors were mostly done at the same time during the time of the Prophet. Allah says in this verse that even though there might be some profit in them both, their sinfulness is much greater than their profit. For example, alcohol may have certain health benefits. Some say it is good for kidney stones.

    However, the harm it does to the brain, gut, liver, and other organs is much more and outweighs the benefit it has for the kidneys. Likewise, gambling might be profitable if one wins and gains a lot of money. However, one can also lose everything he owns by gambling.

    Was the Consumption of Alcohol in the Quran Permissible at First?

    The aforementioned verse is the first verse that Allah revealed to the Prophet about alcoholic drinks and shows that such an act was a sin and was not originally allowed in Islam. However, because it was so common among the Arabs, Allah had not asked Prophet Muhammad to announce its prohibition yet and used gentle and soft words to show its evil nature. In fact, Allah wanted to gradually abolish such an evil act and at that time it was too soon.

    After about a decade passed, Allah officially asked the Prophet to convey His message concerning wine and alcoholic drinks and announce its prohibition by revealing the following verse of Surah Maidah:

    يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِنَّمَا ٱلْخَمْرُ وَٱلْمَيْسِرُ وَٱلْأَنصَابُ وَٱلْأَزْلَـٰمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنِ فَٱجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ﴿90﴾

    O You Who Believe! Indeed, wine, gambling, idols, and divining arrows (a way of gambling) are evil and of Satan’s act; therefore, leave them aside in order that you may prosper.2

    What is the Reason Behind Prohibition of Alcohol in the Quran?

    The next verse of surah Maidah continues by clarifying the reason behind its prohibition:

    إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ ٱلْعَدَٰوَةَ وَٱلْبَغْضَآءَ فِى ٱلْخَمْرِ وَٱلْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ ٱللَّـهِ وَعَنِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ ﴿91﴾

    Indeed, Satan desires to incur enmity and hatred between you through wine and gambling, and he desires to prevent you from God’s remembrance and prayer, yet will you, then give [them] up?3

    So, it is Satan who tries to misguide us by drawing us toward alcohol and intoxicants, and by doing so, he wants to prevent us from remembering Allah and performing salat and cause enmity among us. Besides, alcohol is a very harmful substance that is very bad for one’s health. This is such an obvious fact that it does not need to be proven, even though many scientific studies have done so.

    For example, it has been proven that many degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease is expedited and exacerbated by consumption of alcohol. Moreover, women who are pregnant and consume alcohol may cause serious birth defects for their child.

    Effects of Drinking Alcohol on Acts of Worship

    According to many of our narrations, whosoever drinks alcoholic intoxicants such as wine or beer, their salat will not be accepted for forty days unless they repent.4  However, this does not mean that the individual can skip praying for forty days, as it is still his or her religious duty to offer prayers. It only means that Allah will not be content with his prayer for forty days, but he must still perform his religious duty of praying while at the same time repenting of his sin.

    स्रोत : islam4u.pro

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