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    The Greatness of Mahatma Jotiba Phule

    An Introduction: In India, Maharashtra a state with cultural heritage and is also land of social thinkers, social reforms and social revolutionaries who have not only molded and enriched all facets of life of Maharashtra but have also made singular contribution to growth and development of India .In this website of the great social reformer…


    The Greatness of Mahatma Jotiba Phule

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    An Introduction:

    In India, Maharashtra a state with cultural heritage and is also land of social thinkers, social reforms and social revolutionaries who have not only molded and enriched all facets of life of Maharashtra but have also made singular contribution to growth and development of India .In this website of the great social reformer – Mahatma Phule, contempory of KARL MARX, we have the “patria protesta” of the Indian social revolution and the first leader of peasants.

    Mahatma Jotiba Phule

    In those days there was a conflict between the rationalist and the orthodox. His period can, therefore, be a aptly described as the dawn of revolution in the history not only of Maharashtra but of the country as a whole in the various fields like Education, Caste Systems, Agriculture, Economics, Women and widow upliftment , Human Rights, Untouchability ,Social Equality.

    Check also – Mahatma Jotiba Phule and Savitribai Phule’s contribution towards women empowerment

    MAHATMA JYOTIRAO GOVINDRAO PHULE occupies a unique position among the social reformers of Maharashtra in the nineteenth century. While other reformers concentrated more on reforming the social institutions of family and marriage with special emphasis on the status and rights of women, Jotirao Phule revolted against the unjust caste system under which million of people had suffered for centuries. In particular, he courageously upheld the cause of the untouchables and took up the cudgels for the poorer peasants. He was a militant advocate of their rights. The story of his stormy life is an inspiring saga of a continuous struggle, which he waged relentlessly against the forces of reaction. What was remarkable was his ability to stand up against all kinds of pressure without faltering even once and act always according to his convictions. Though some keen observers of the social scene in Maharashtra like Narayan Mahadeo Parmanand did acknowledge his greatness in his lifetime, it is only in recent decades that there is increasing appreciation of his service and sacrifice in uplifting the masses.

    Read also – What Mahatma Jotiba Phule SaidChildhood:

    Jotirao Phule was born in 1827. His father, Govindrao was a vegetable vendor at Poona. Originally Jotirao’s family, known as Gorhays, came from Katugan, a village in the Satara district of Maharashtra. His grandfather Shetiba Gorhay settled down in Poona. Since Jotirao’s father and two uncles served as florists under the last of the Peshwas, they came to be known as ‘Phules’. Jotirao’s mother passed away when he was hardly one year old. After completing his primary education, Jotirao had to leave the school and help his father by working on the family’s farm. Jotirao’s marriage was celebrated when he was not even thirteen.


    Impressed by Jotirao’s intelligence and his love for knowledge, two of his neighbours, one a Muslim teacher and another a Christian gentleman persuaded his father Govindrao to allow him to study in a secondary school. In 1841, Jotirao got admission in the Scottish Mission’s High School at Poona. It was in this school that he met Sadashiv Ballal Govande, a Brahmin, who remained a close friend throughout his life. Both Jotirao and Govande were greatly influenced by Thomas Paine’s ideas and they read with great interest Paine’s famous book ‘ The Rights of Man’. Moro Vithal Valvekar and Sakharam Yashwant Paranjapye were two other Brahmin friends of Jotirao who in later years stood by him in all his activities. After completing his secondary education in 1847, Jotirao decided not to accept a job under the Government.

    Check also – Books by Mahatma Jotiba PhuleSource of Inspiration:

    An incident in 1848 made him aware of the qualities of the caste system, the predominant position of the Brahmins in the social set up. He was invited to attend a wedding of one of his Brahmin friends. As the bridegroom was taken in a procession, Jotirao accompanied him along with the relatives of his Brahmin friend. Knowing that Jotirao belonged to the Mali caste which was considered to be inferior by the Brahmins, the relatives of the bridegroom insulted and abused him. Jotirao left the procession and returned home. With tears in his eyes, he narrated his experience to his father who tried to pacify him. After this incident Jotirao made up his mind to defy the caste-system and serve the Shudras and women who were deprived of all their rights as human beings under the caste-system.

    Social Life:

    Education of women and the lower caste, he believed, deserved priority. Hence at home he began educating his wife Savitribai and open girl’s school in August 1848. The orthodox opponents of Jotirao were furious and they started a vicious campaign against him. He refused to be unnerved by their malicious propaganda. As no teacher dared to work in a school in which untouchables were admitted as students, Jotirao asked his wife to teach the girls in his school. Stones and brickbats were thrown at her when she was on her way to the school. The reactionaries threatened Jotirao’s father with dire consequences if he did not dissociate himself from his son’s activities. Yielding to the pressure, Jotirao’s father asked his son and the daughter-in-law to leave his house as both of them refused to give up their noble endeavor.

    स्रोत : velivada.com

    What are the contributions of Jyotiba Rao Phule to Indian society?

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    What are the contributions of Jyotiba Rao Phule to Indian society?

    Last Updated : 26 Sep, 2022

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    Jyotirao Govindrao Phule, also known as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, was an Indian social activist, thinker, anti-caste social reformer, and writer from Maharashtra.

    Jyotirao Govindrao Phule was born in Pune in 1827. His father’s name was Govindrao Phule and his mother was Chimnabai. He was born to a family that belonged to the Mali Caste. In the four varna system caste, they were placed within the Sudras or the lower ranking class. Jyotiba Phule died on November 28, 1890.

    The turning point in his life came in 1848 when he attended the wedding of a friend who was a Brahmin. Jyotiba Phule attended a regular wedding procession but was later accused and insulted by his friend’s parents. They told him, that as part of Shudra’s caste, he should be wise enough to leave these rituals and should leave the ceremony. This case was unfair in the caste system and had a profound effect on Jyotiba Phule.

    Contribution of Jyoti Phule to the Indian Society

    Contribution towards Elimination of Caste Discrimination                                

    Jyotirao attacked the Orthodox Brahmin and other high-ranking castes, calling them “hypocrites”. He fought the authoritarianism of upper castes and called on “farmers” and “proletariats” to resist the restrictions imposed on them. He believed that religious icons such as ‘Rama’ or ‘Krishna’ were used by the Brahmin as a means of conquering lower castes.

    The orthodox Brahmin of society was furious at Jyotirao’s activities. They accused him of violating social norms and regulations. Many had accused him of acting on behalf of  Christian missionaries. However, Jyotirao remained firm and resistant to them and decided to continue the movement started by him. Interestingly, Jyotirao was assisted by some of his Brahmin friends who expanded their support for the success of his movement.

    Contribution Towards Women’s Education

    He believed in gender equality and embodied his belief by involving his wife in all social reform activities. He witnessed how a young widow had to shave his hair and had to reject all kinds of joy in her life. He saw how untouchable women were forced to dance naked. And then, he decided to educate women by witnessing all these social illnesses that promote inequality.

    Jyotirao’s quest to give women and girls the right to education was supported by his wife, Savitribai Phule. One of the few educated women of the time, Savitribai, received her literacy instruction from her husband, Jyotirao. In 1851, Jyotirao founded a girls’ school and asked her wife to teach girls at school. He later opened two more schools for girls and indigenous schools for lower castes, especially for Mahar and Mang caste.

    Efforts toward stopping child marriage and Jauhar Pratha 

    In his time, society was patriarchal and the status of women was particularly dire. Female infanticide and child marriage were two main stigmas in society. Girls were sometimes married to much older men. These women often became widowed before even reaching puberty and were left without family support. Suffering from their plight, Jyotirao founded an orphanage or ashram in 1854 to protect these unfortunate souls from the cruel hands of society. And eventually became an advocate of the widow’s remarriage idea.

    Creation of Satya Shodhak Samaj

    In 1873, Jyotiba Phule founded Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Truth Seekers). He embarked on a systematic deconstruction of existing beliefs and history, only to rebuild a near-equal version. Jyotirao Phule denounced the ancient Hindu scriptures of the Vedas. He traces the history of Brahmanism through several other ancient texts and revealed it as an exploitative and inhumane practice to maintain their social dominance by suppressing the “shudra” and “antishdra” of society. He blamed Brahmin for enacting the law. The purpose of  Satya Shodhak Samaj was to decontaminate society from caste discrimination and to remove the stigma that was inflicted by the Brahmin. Jyotirao Phule was the first person who used the word “Dalit” which refers to all those who the Brahmin considered untouchable and lower caste. Satya Shodhak Samaj membership was open to everyone, regardless of caste or rank. Several written records even show that they welcomed the participation of Jews as members of Samaj, and in 1876 “Satya Shodak Samaji” boasted  316 members. In 1868, Jyotirao decided to set up a common aquarium in front of his house to show his comprehensive attitude towards all and wanted to have dinner with everyone, regardless of caste.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Question 1: Who was Savitribai Jyotirao Phule?Answer:

    Savitrirao Phule was the wife of Jyotirao Phule. She was also an Indian social reformer, educationalist, and a poet. Together with her husband,  she played an important and decisive role in improving women’s rights in India, Maharashtra. She is considered as a pioneer of the Indian feminist movement. Savitribai and her husband founded one of the first modern Indian girls’ schools in  Bhide Wada, Pune in 1848. She worked to eliminate discrimination and injustice of people based on caste and gender. She is considered as an important figure in the Maharashtra social reform movement.

    स्रोत : www.geeksforgeeks.org

    [Solved] Satya Shodak Samaj organized

    The correct answer is an anti-caste movement in Maharashtra. Satya Shodak Samaj is an Anti-caste movement in Maharashtra. The main aim was to liberate the s

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    Satya Shodak Samaj organized

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    A movement for upliftment of tribals in Bihar

    A temple-entry movement in Gujarat

    An anti-caste movement in Maharashtra

    A peasant movement in Punjab

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    Option 3 : An anti-caste movement in Maharashtra

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    The correct answer is an anti-caste movement in Maharashtra.

    Satya Shodak Samaj is an Anti-caste movement in Maharashtra.

    The main aim was to liberate the so-called 'lower castes' from exploitation and oppression.

    Satyashodhak Samaj was founded by Jyotirao Phule.

    It was founded in Pune, Maharashtra, on 24 September 1873.

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