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    Francis Drake's circumnavigation

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    Francis Drake's circumnavigation

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    Francis Drake's circumnavigation

    Part of the Anglo–Spanish War

    Engraved world map of Drake's circumnavigation

    Date 13 December 1577 – 26 September 1580

    Location

    Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    Result English victory

    Belligerents Spain Portugal England

    Commanders and leaders

    Francisco de Toledo Francis Drake

    Strength

    Various ports & shipping 5 ships

    169 men and boys

    Casualties and losses

    13 ships captured & plundered

    12 merchants ships run aground

    5 settlements plundered 1 ship lost

    2 ships scuttled 103 dead show vte

    Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)

    Francis Drake's circumnavigation, also known as Drake's Raiding Expedition, was an important historical maritime event that took place between 15 December 1577 and 26 September 1580. Authorised by Queen Elizabeth I and led by Francis Drake; the latter sailed with five ships in what was termed a 'voyage of discovery', although in effect it was an ambitious covert raiding voyage and the start of England's challenge to the global domination of Spain and Portugal.[1]

    Drake set off after a delay of nearly six months on 15 December 1577. After capturing Spanish vessels and Portuguese caravels while crossing the Atlantic he passed Cape Horn and became the first Englishman to navigate the Straits of Magellan. He travelled up the west coast of South America after reaching the Pacific Ocean in October 1578. Due to losses by storms and disease, only two ships remained, one of which was the . Drake then plundered Spanish ports and took a number of Spanish treasure ships including the rich galleon . After continuing north, hoping to find a route back across to the Atlantic, Drake sailed further up the west coast of America than any European and landed in present-day California, claiming the land for England and naming it New Albion.

    Unable to find a passage, Drake turned south in the lone and in July 1579 sailed west across the Pacific. His travels took him to the Moluccas, Celebes, Java, and then round the Cape of Good Hope and finally the western tip of Africa. Drake arrived back in England in September 1580 with a rich cargo of spices and treasure and the distinction of being the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe. Seven months later, Queen Elizabeth knighted him aboard the , much to the annoyance of the king Philip II of Spain. As a result, the voyage was one of the precursors to the Anglo–Spanish War.[2] Drake's intrusion into the Pacific, which Spain considered ,[3] triggered an immediate Spanish colonization attempt of the Strait of Magellan aimed to block access to the Pacific.[4][5]

    Contents

    1 Background 1.1 Preparation

    2 Circumnavigation voyage

    2.1 Atlantic crossing

    2.2 Rounding South America

    2.2.1 Execution of Doughty

    2.2.2 Strait of Magellan

    2.2.3 Mocha Island and the Mapuche

    2.3 Raids on Spanish American west coast

    2.3.1 Valparaíso and Callao

    2.3.2 Spanish pursuit

    2.3.3 Capture of Spanish treasure ships

    2.3.4 Last raids

    2.4 California and Pacific North West

    2.4.1 Nova Albion

    2.5 Pacific and East Indies

    2.5.1 Moluccas and Celebes

    2.5.2 Java

    2.6 Indian Ocean to Plymouth

    3 Aftermath

    3.1 Spanish reaction

    3.2 War

    3.3 Nova Albion claim

    4 Legacy

    4.1 In popular culture

    5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 7.1 Journals 7.2 External links

    Background[edit]

    Sir Francis Drake by Jodocus Hondius

    During the early stages of the Age of Discovery, the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the New World into Spanish and Portuguese zones and was signed by the nations' respective monarchs and Pope Alexander VI. However the Protestant Reformation in the early sixteenth century resulted in Protestant nations of Europe that did not recognise Papal spiritual or temporal authority and subsequently rejected the treaty. One of these nations was England, and in the 1560s, King Philip II of Spain's relations with Queen Elizabeth I of England deteriorated, following her restoration of royal supremacy over the Church of England through the Act of Supremacy in 1559.[6]

    English merchants and adventurers subsequently engaged in trade missions with the various Spanish posts in the New World. Spain was deeply suspicious of any attempt by foreign powers to trade or establish colonies in their zone of control, going so far as to massacre several hundred French Huguenot inhabitants of Fort Caroline in French Florida in 1565 after they had surrendered.[7]

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

    Advent of the Europeans Into India: SEBA Class 9 History notes

    Notes/answers for social science (history) chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India of class 9 for students studying under SEBA.

    Advent of the Europeans Into India: SEBA Class 9 History

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    Here are the notes/solutions/answers to the questions for social science (history) chapter 1 Advent of the Europeans into India of class 9 for students studying under the Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA). These notes, however, should be seen only as references and nothing more.

    INTRODUCTION: From time immemorial India had extensive trade relations both maritime and overland with Europe. The productions and manufacturers of India were in great demand in western countries. European nations like Greece, Rome etc. had an extensive trade relationship with India through the Red Sea, Persia and Afghanistan till the end of the sixth century. But the old trade routes were closed in the seventh century when the Arabs conquered many countries and the bulk of the Indian trade was monopolised by the Arabs. But with the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453 AD) as a consequence of the Crusades which had started in the twelfth century AD, the overland route was closed. The European nations felt the necessity of an alternative route to India which would be safe from the attack of the Turks.Read: Quick revision of the chapter for exams

    The Portuguese were the pioneers in finding new routes. They being indomitable adventurer sailors started navigation in the unknown sea to discover a new sea route to India. The Portuguese sailor Bartolomeu Diaz could reach the Cape of Good Hope, situated at the southernmost corner of South Africa, in 1487 A.D. It was only after ten years that another sailor Vasco-da Gama, following Bartholomeu Diaz, arrived at Cali cut port in India in 1498 A.D. Thus the long-sought sea route was discovered between India and western countries. This new communication ushered a new era not only in the history of India but of the whole world.

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    Very short/short answer questions

    1. Who was the first Portuguese sailor to discover the sea route between India and the west? When and where in India did he arrive for the first time?Answer: The first Portuguese sailor to discover the sea route between India and the west is Vasco da Gama.  He arrived at the port of  Calicut of South India in 1498 A.D. for the first time.2. Who was the English sailor able to move around the Earth through the sea route?Answer: The English sailor who was able to move around the Earth through the sea route was Francis Drake.3. Who was the English sailor who entered India for the first time with a petition letter and when?Answer: The English sailor who entered India for the first time with a petition letter was John Mildenhall in the year 1599 A.D.

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    8. Which were the two main divisions of the British administrative period of dependent India?Answer: The first is from the downfall of the Mughal empire to the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 and the second is from 1858 to 1947.9. When and with what objective was the ‘Govt. of India Act’ enacted?Answer: The Govt. of India Act was enacted in the British Parliament in 1935.  The objective was to declare the formation of Federal states in India and to make provisions to form elected government in the provinces, thus giving more power to the Indians.10. When and with what objective was the ‘Indian Council Act’ enacted?Answer: Indian Council Act was enacted in 1861.  The objective was to make the educated Indians familiar with the new administrative structure divided into Central administration and Provincial administration.

    Short / Long Answers

    1. What were the efforts made by the British to establish trade relations with India?  Analyze the steps why which they succeeded. Answer: The efforts made by the British to establish trade relations with India were:

    i. The British came to India and established the East India Company to trade with Indian rulers.

    ii. Emperor Jahangir granted permission to the English merchants to establish factories at Surat, though no-trade contracts were signed.

    iii. The English merchants continued their endeavours for trade with Indians at different places.

    iv. Though the first and foremost objective of the East India Company traded, they had ambitions for political powers.

    v. The Company took advantage of the growing enmity and weakness among the Indian ruling class and tried to establish English rule in India.

    vi. The East India Company officers in order to build a colonial empire devised schemes of expelling other European companies from India. Thus, gradually building up a colony of British imperialism throughout India.

    vii. With the succeeding governor rule, the British East India Company got the legal sanction as the ruling power.

    viii. The emperor introduced Dual Government in Bengal by conferring upon the company the right of Diwani (collection of revenue)and the responsibility of civil, criminal and police administration.

    स्रोत : onlinefreenotes.com

    Ferdinand Magellan

    Ferdinand Magellan (1480–1521) was a Portuguese explorer who is credited with masterminding the first expedition to circumnavigate the world.

    Ferdinand Magellan

    How did the Pacific Ocean get its name and what did this Portuguese explorer have to do with it?

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    Ferdinand Magellan

    Ferdinand Magellan (1480–1521) was a Portuguese explorer who is credited with masterminding the first expedition to circumnavigate the world.

    Magellan was sponsored by Spain to travel west across the Atlantic in search of the East Indies. In doing so, his expedition became the first from Europe to cross the Pacific Ocean and circumnavigate the world.

    Who was Magellan?

    Magellan was born in Portugal and was a successful explorer and navigator. He wanted to reach South-East Asia, where spices grew and gems were to be found, by sailing westwards across the Atlantic Ocean. He hoped to find a passage through South America so that he could sail all the way from the Atlantic to the ocean beyond the Americas (now known as the Pacific). He left Spain in 1519 with five ships and about 260 men.

    Did he find a passage through South America?

    Magellan found the strait that is now named after him, but only by chance. When two of his ships were driven towards land in a storm, the men feared they would be wrecked on the shore. Then, just in time, they spotted a small opening in the coastline. It was the passage for which they had been searching since they left home.

    Where did the name ‘Pacific’ come from?

    Magellan named the ocean the Pacific (meaning 'peaceful') because it was calm and pleasant when he entered it.

    By now one of his ships had deserted, but the other four started the journey across their new-found sea. To everyone's amazement, the crossing was to take three months and 20 days. Magellan and his men suffered terrible hunger on the voyage. They ran out of fresh food and many died of scurvy.

    Did Magellan get home safely?

    No: he was killed in a fight with islanders in the Philippines. He died on 27 April 1521 on Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines.

    So although he had masterminded the first expedition to sail around the world, he didn’t complete the voyage. In fact, the first person to sail around the world was a Malaysian, who had come back to Europe with Magellan many years before and then went as an interpreter on his later voyage. The first European to complete the circumnavigation was Magellan's second-in-command, Juan Sebastian de Elcano, who took over after his death.

    How many men returned to Spain?

    Of all the men who sailed with Magellan, only 18 returned to Spain in 1522. People were amazed when they saw those on board the one remaining ship, Victoria, for they looked starved and filthy.

    Did people make use of the trade route Magellan had discovered?

    The western sea route to the Spice Islands was not used for many years. Spain was too busy taking land in South America, and it was easier for the Portuguese to get to the East by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.

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