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    French Revolution

    1789 is one of the most significant dates in history - famous for the revolution in France with its cries of 'Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!' that led to the removal of the French upper classes. The French Revolution didn't just take...

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    French Revolution

    French Revolution Lesson at a glance

    Suitable for: Key stage 5Time period: Empire and Industry 1750-1850Suggested inquiry questions: How did the British government respond to news of the French Revolution?Potential activities: Students create a timeline for the French revolution using the sources here and their own researchDownload: Lesson pack

    How did the British react to July 1789?

    Tasks Background Teachers' notes External links

    Connections to curriculum

    1789 is one of the most significant dates in history – famous for the revolution in France with its cries of ‘Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!’ that led to the removal of the French upper classes. The French Revolution didn’t just take place in 1789. It actually lasted for another six years, with far more violent and momentous events taking place in the years after 1789. However, here we examine the British reaction to the events in France during this famous year – were the British government extremely worried or did they see it as merely a few minor disturbances?

    Looking at primary source material from 1789, including a London newspaper report, together with both official and personal letters sent from Paris, you will be asked to assess and investigate the reaction. The significance of 1789 is now well known, but did anybody at the time even dare to suggest how important it was?

    Let’s look at the evidence to find out. Use this lesson to find out from contemporary sources how the British government reacted to news of the French revolution.

    Tasks

    1. Look at Source 1. This is an extract from the London Gazette from Saturday 18 July to Tuesday 21 July, 1789.

    What evidence is there that the population of Paris were worried?

    What was wrong with the official police force?

    Source 1

    2. Look at Source 2. This is an extract from the London Gazette from Saturday 18 July to Tuesday 21 July, 1789.

    Why were the people outside the Bastille so outraged when the Governor gave the order to fire on them?

    Some were then allowed in – on what condition?

    What happened to the 40 who went into the Bastille?

    What happened to the Governor?

    Source 2

    3. Look at Source 3.This is an extract from the London Gazette from Saturday 18 July to Tuesday 21 July, 1789.

    According to the source, people lined the streets – how does the source describe their behaviour?

    How pleased were people with the King’s promises? How were people behaving?

    What evidence in the source suggests further trouble could easily break out?

    Source 3

    4. Look at Source 4. This is a letter from a Mr Jenkinson from Paris, dated 15 July 1789.

    Examine Mr. Jenkinson’s description of the storming of the Bastille – is there any reason to doubt his claims? Give your reasons

    Why, according to this source, did the King ‘recant all his former words’ and agree to the people’s demands?

    What are the strengths and weaknesses of this evidence?

    Source 4

    5. Look at Source 5. This is an extract from a confidential report from the British Ambassador.

    How have the recent events affected newspapers?

    Why does the ambassador have little to report?

    Source 5

    6. Look at Source 6. This is another extract from the report seen in Source 5.

    What is wrong with the account of the storming of the Bastille?

    What reasons does the ambassador suggest for the quick and easy take over of the Bastille?

    What reasons are given to ‘lament’ the death of the Marquis de Launay?

    What does the small number of prisoners actually inside the Bastille suggest about the reign of King Louis XVI?

    Source 6

    7. Look at Source 7. This is a further extract from the report seen in Source 5 and 6.

    How many members of the royal family have fled?

    What does the ambassador say is ‘scarcely possible to imagine’?

    What main reason is suggested for wanting these people to return?

    Source 7

    8. Look again at Sources 1-7. Using all the available sources, decide which of these descriptions best fit each source:

    Serious revolution, leading to real danger for Britain

    A Paris-based revolt that the King was forced to agree to

    Minor disturbances, of no real consequence at all

    Explain the reasons for your decisions.

    9. Using all your previous work, write a detailed paragraph explaining how seriously the British took the events of July 1789.

    Use your source evidence effectively and think about the following issues:

    What had been the reaction to the King’s promises following the storming of the Bastille?

    How serious and long lasting did the ambassador suggest the problems were?

    Background

    The French Revolution began in 1789 and lasted until 1794. King Louis XVI needed more money, but had failed to raise more taxes when he had called a meeting of the Estates General. This instead turned into a protest about conditions in France. On July 14 1789 the Paris mob, hungry due to a lack of food from poor harvests, upset at the conditions of their lives and annoyed with their King and Government, stormed the Bastille fortress (a prison). This turned out to be more symbolic than anything else as only four or five prisoners were found.

    स्रोत : www.nationalarchives.gov.uk

    [Solved]  Who was the King of France at the time of the French R

    The correct answer is Louis XVI Louis XVI was the King of France at the time of the French Revolution.  Louis XVI:  He is the French ki

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     Who was the King of France at the time of the French Revolution ?

    Louis XIV Louis XVI Marie Antoinette Nicholas II

    Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

    Option 2 : Louis XVI

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    The correct answer is Louis XVI

    Louis XVI was the King of France at the time of the French Revolution.Louis XVI: 

    He is the French king who belongs to the Bourbon dynasty who took the royalty in 1774.

    He had inherited massive tax structure & debt problems and it was unable to fix them.

    As the 18th century drew to close, the extravagant spending by King Louis XVI and his predecessor is the & France's costly involvement in the American Revolution left the country in the frame of bankruptcy.

    In the fall of 1786, Charles Alexandre de Calonne who is the King Louis XVI’s controller general is proposed a financial stability package that is a universal land tax from which the privileged classes would no longer be exempt.

    French Revolution:

    The French Revolution(1789-1799) was a shadow event that changed Europe's scenario, following in the footsteps of the Revolution in America, which had occurred just a decade earlier.

    In modern European history, the French Revolution was a vital event that started in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s.

    In the revolution, a huge of giant wars had taken place in the forty years leading up to the Revolution, and in most of them, France had participated.

    The costs of supporting allies, waging war, and maintaining the army quickly depleted crisis in the country's wealth that was already poor from royal extravagance.

    Finally, the thought of King Louis XVI had absolute power due to the divine right of the idea in a time of highly secularized enlightenment.

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    स्रोत : testbook.com

    Louis XVI

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    Louis XVI

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    Portrait by Antoine-François Callet, 1789

    King of France (more...)

    Reign 10 May 1774 – 21 September 1792[1]

    Coronation 11 June 1775

    Reims Cathedral

    Predecessor Louis XV

    Successor Louis XVII (as disputed King of France)

    Napoleon I (as Emperor)

    Born 23 August 1754

    Palace of Versailles, France

    Died 21 January 1793 (aged 38)

    Place de la Révolution, Paris, France

    Burial 21 January 1815

    Basilica of St Denis

    Spouse Marie Antoinette of Austria

    ​ ​(m. 1770)​ Issue

    Marie-Thérèse, Duchess of Angoulême

    Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France

    Louis XVII, King of France

    Princess Sophie Names

    Louis Auguste de France

    House Bourbon

    Father Louis, Dauphin of France

    Mother Maria Josepha of Saxony

    Religion Roman Catholicism

    Signature

    Louis XVI (; French pronunciation: ​[lwi sɛːz]; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as during the four months just before he was executed by guillotine. He was the son of Louis, Dauphin of France, son and heir-apparent of King Louis XV, and Maria Josepha of Saxony. When his father died in 1765, he became the new Dauphin. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he became King of France and Navarre, reigning as such until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of King of the French, continuing to reign as such until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

    The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform the French government in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the (land tax) and the (labour tax),[2] and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics as well as abolish the death penalty for deserters.[3][4] The French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, and successfully opposed their implementation. Louis implemented deregulation of the grain market, advocated by his economic liberal minister Turgot, but it resulted in an increase in bread prices. In periods of bad harvests, it led to food scarcity which, during a particularly bad harvest in 1775, prompted the masses to revolt. From 1776, Louis XVI actively supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, which was realised in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the . This led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy, of which Louis and his wife Queen Marie Antoinette were viewed as representatives. Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly.

    Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the , and his popularity deteriorated progressively. His unsuccessful flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention. The credibility of the king was deeply undermined, and the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility. The growth of anti-clericalism among revolutionaries resulted in the abolition of the (religious land tax) and several government policies aimed at the dechristianization of France.

    In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792. One month later, the monarchy was abolished and the First French Republic was proclaimed on 21 September 1792. Louis was then tried by the National Convention (self-instituted as a tribunal for the occasion), found guilty of high treason and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of , in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis's surname. Louis XVI was the only king of France ever to be executed, and his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Both of his sons died in childhood, before the Bourbon Restoration; his only child to reach adulthood, Marie Thérèse, was given over to the Austrians in exchange for French prisoners of war, eventually dying childless in 1851.

    स्रोत : en.wikipedia.org

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